1. Kazuno Kohara of bookshelf Kazuno Kohara is an author and illustrator of childrens books. She grew up in Japan and now lives in the United Kingdom.
Her books feature linocut illustrations in one or two colors. Her book Ghosts in the House was named a Best Illustrated Childrens Book of 2008 by The New York Times. ------ 2. The Watch Below of bookshelf The Watch Below (1966) is a science fiction novel by British writer James White about a colony of humans stranded underwater in a sunken ship, who survive by air pockets, and a water-breathing alien species in search of a new home. The two generation ships encounter each other in the Earth's ocean ------ 3. Activities of bookshelf Historical lectures, trips, and projects have been presented by the Daughters of the Cincinnati to the membership since 1894. Daughters of the Cincinnati join in patriotic celebrations and historical programs with many other patriotic and heritage societies. In the 1970s the Daughters of the Cincinnati collected original correspondence and portraits of their ancestor officers. These primary sources formed the core of a well regarded book, A Salute to Courage: The American Revolution as Seen Through Wartime Writings of Officers of the Continental Army and Navy from Documents Provided by The Daughters of the Cincinnati, edited by Dennis P. Ryan and published by Columbia University Press. One newspaper review commented "the book bridges two centuries with the words of those who were there and brings alive in modern eyes the hardships, horror, and patriotism of the Revolution.
". ------ 4. Scholarships of bookshelf For over a hundred years the Daughters of the Cincinnati have raised funds to help hundreds of young women to pay their college tuitions. Scholarships are awarded to daughters of career military officers in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard. Selection is based on both excellence and need. The Daughters of the Cincinnati is a 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization. ------ 5. Daughters of the Cincinnati of bookshelf The Daughters of the Cincinnati is an historical, hereditary lineage organization founded in 1894 by women whose ancestors were officers in George Washingtons army and navy during the Revolutionary War. The organization's activities are designed to expand and perpetuate the knowledge of the founding of the nation. In addition, the Daughters of the Cincinnati honor the contributions of their officer ancestors by giving college scholarships to the daughters of today's career military officers.
. ------ 6. Membership and organization of bookshelf Membership was originally limited to women who were descended from a member of the Society of the Cincinnati or of an officer in the Continental Army or Navy who died while in service. There were 200 members as of 1923 and the secretary's address is 271 Madison Ave #1408, New York 10016
The society has headquarters in New York and its members reside throughout the United States and in many foreign countries. All members of the Daughters of the Cincinnati are descendants of officers who were entitled to original membership in the Society of the Cincinnati founded in 1783.
The idea for the park began in 1976 when Eugene Mulvihill and his company Great American Recreation (GAR), the owners of the recently combined Vernon Valley/Great Gorge ski area, wanted to find a way to generate revenue during the summer. That year they followed the trend of many other ski areas and opened a 2,700-foot-long (820 m) alpine slide down one of the steep ski trails. For the summer of 1978, Mulvihill added two water slides and a go-kart track, and named the collection of rides the "Vernon Valley Summer Park". The following year, more water slides and a small deep-water swimming pool, as well as tennis courts and a softball field, were added to what became known as the Waterworld section of "Action Park". By 1980, Motorworld had been carved out of swampy lands the ski area owned across Route 94. Combined, these areas formed one of North America's earliest modern water parks.
Ultimately, the small park consisting of the alpine slide and two water slides evolved to a major destination with 75 rides (35 motorized, self-controlled rides and 40 water slides).
Action Park's most successful years were the early- and mid-1980s. Most rides were still operating, and the park's dangerous reputation had not yet developed. In 1982, two guests died at the park within a week of each other, leading to the permanent closure of one ride. Despite this, people continued to come in massive numbers. The park's fortunes began to turn with two deaths in the summer of 1984, and the legal and financial problems that stemmed from the ensuing lawsuits. A state investigation of misconduct in the leasing of state land to Action Park led to a 110-count grand jury indictment against the nine related companies that ran the park and their executives for operating an unauthorized insurance company. Many took pretrial intervention to avoid prosecution; CEO Eugene Mulvihill pleaded guilty that November to five insurance fraud-related charges. Still, attendance remained high and the park remained profitable, at least on paper.
The park entertained over one million visitors per year during the 1980s, with as many as 12,000 coming on some of the busiest weekends. Park officials said this made the injury and death rate statistically insignificant. Nevertheless, the director of the emergency room at a nearby hospital said they treated from five to ten victims of park accidents on some of the busiest days, and the park eventually bought the township of Vernon extra ambulances to keep up with the volume. In September 1989, GAR negotiated a deal with International Broadcasting Corporation that would result in the sale of Vernon Valley/Great Gorge, and Action Park, for $50 million. IBC, however, backed out of the deal, feeling the site was not suitable for their needs upon further inspections of the properties.
By the 1990s, the Action Park was being advertised as the world's largest water park. Additionally, the park launched a website on which visitors could find information about rides, directions to the park, and lodging, and even enter a lottery for a chance to win park tickets. In September 1991, Great American Recreation attempted to petition the Vernon Township Committee to put a referendum on the November ballot that, if passed, would have legalized the operation of games of skill and chance at Action Park. On September 23, the petition was rejected by the committee because only 643 of the 937 signatures on the petition came from registered voters.
A few rides were closed and dismantled due to costly settlements and rising insurance premiums in the 1990s, and the park's attendance began to suffer as a recession early in that decade reduced the number of visitors. In early 1995, GAR operated Vernon Valley/Great Gorge and Action Park with no liability insurance. New Jersey did not require it, and GAR found it more economical to go to court than purchase liability insurance, since they relied on their own self-insurance. However, they ultimately purchased liability insurance from Evanston Insurance Company in May of that year to cover Action Park and the skiing facilities. As 1995 progressed, GAR's financial woes continued to accumulate. First Fidelity Bank, who lent $19 million to GAR and some 15 other connected corporations, filed suit against them in an effort to begin the process of foreclosing on the debt owed to them. Law firms owed money for services rendered between 1991 and 1993 also began filing suit. As November approached, GAR negotiated a deal with Noramco Capital Corp. and the Praedium Fund of CS First Boston, in which they would purchase the debt owed to First Fidelity, temporarily fending off an impending foreclosure.
In February 1996, the creditors who had taken on GAR's debt petitioned to force GAR into bankruptcy over the $14 million owed by the struggling company. GAR filed for Chapter 11 protection that following March, but remained optimistic that they could regain their financial footing "within a year."
Action Park closed at the end of the season as usual on Labor Day, September 2, 1996. As the 1997 summer season approached, GAR remained optimistic that Action Park would open as expected on June 14, in spite of massive layoffs that occurred at the end of the prior ski season. The opening date was pushed back to June 28, then mid July. On June 25, 1997, GAR announced the cessation of all its operations, including Action Park.
Following the demise of GAR in 1997, Praedium Recovery Fund purchased the Vernon Valley/Great Gorge resort, including Action Park, for $10 million. The investment group put Angel Projects in charge of managing the resort, and aimed to spend $20 million to upgrade the ski resort's equipment and trails and to remodel the water park. Canadian resort developer Intrawest, however, purchased the park and surrounding ski area in February 1998. The company revamped the Waterworld section of Action Park and reopened it for the 1998 season as Mountain Creek Waterpark, while the Motorworld and Alpine Center sections were demolished.
It is called an airlock, just like on a submarine or a spaceship. They generally have a separate small heater or AC duct. The idea is that untempered air from the outdoors is trapped in this small "room", then heated or cooled before it gets into the main building space.
Obviously in a busy building that has constant coming and going where both doors are open at the same time, this doesn't work so well. But in general it is a very practical method of minimizing the amount of unconditioned air that enters a building.What is the tiny room between two rows of automatic doors at store entrances called?.
With any variable frequency drive application, the critical parameters are TORQUE - what's the worst-case torque? - and SPEED.Your application is 0.55kW over a span of 50-300RPM. Assuming your mechanical variable speed drive is either a variable belt drive or a disc drive, it is a torque-multiplying drive where the available output power is constant as the speed changes. 0.55kW at 300RPM is 17.5 N-m, while the same 0.55kW at 50RPM is 105N-m. Then it gets worse. A three-phase AC motor is capable of producing much more torque at start than it can output continuously.
Exactly how much more is dependent on the design of the motor, but generally 150-250% of full-load torque is available at start. Not taking this into account results in a lot of misapplied inverter/motor systems because that torque is not available from an inverter unless the inverter is sized to deliver a lot more current.The question then becomes "what is the worst-case condition?" That is, where do you need the most torque when operating your machine? Let's say your equipment is an industrial mixer, and stipulate that it MUST be started with the mechanical variable speed drive at its slowest setting when loaded with materials or it will fail to start.
The worst-case torque condition then would be (assuming 200% starting torque available) 2 x 105 N-m, or 210 N-m. To properly size a VFD/motor combination, your system MUST be able to produce 210 N-m. Typically, an industrial-duty VFD unit is rated to put out a certain amount of current continuously, and 150% of that rating for 60 seconds.
A drive designed for pump and fan applications may only be rated for 110% overload for 60 seconds. When operating a motor on a VFD, output current is (for all intents and purposes) equivalent to torque.So, what size motor do we need to produce 210 N-m at start? If 210 N-m is 150% of the motor's full-load rating, the motor full-load torque would be 140 N-m.
Assume we're going to use a four-pole 50Hz rated motor with a nameplate rated speed of 1475RPM. One hundred forty N-m at 1475RPM means 21.6kW. The closest standard rating is 22kW.Wait, what? The old system uses a 0.55kW motor, and the new one requires a 22kW motor? Welcome to the wonderful world of mechanical torque multiplication.
Remember, your maximum speed is 300 RPM. You don't want to operate an induction motor at full-load current over a maximum range of 50-300RPM if you can possibly avoid it. You don't want just a motor, you want a motor with a gearbox.
Such as a motor/gearbox combination with a rated output speed of 300 RPM and a rated continuous output torque of 140 N-m. Plug those numbers into the equations and the motor rating drops to 4.4kW. The closest standard rating is 5.0kW. Yes, the motor is almost 10x the size of the original, but that is what is required to ensure that the system will start under the worst possible condition.
But wait! There's more! Once the system is started, the torque required to run it falls off rather dramatically, since the current system with the 0.55kW motor can spin the output shaft at 300 RPM while producing no more than 17.5 N-m of torque. One advantage of variable-frequency drives is that you can operate the motor at OVER the nameplate frequency, so long as the motor is mechanically capable of handling the overspeed condition, and the motor does not draw more than the nameplate full-load current.
How about a motor with a gearbox rated 140 N-m at 200 RPM? Now the motor size drops to 2.9kW, and the closest standard motor is 3.0kW. Were it me, that's the size I'd select. To get 50-300 RPM out of the system, the VFD would operate between 12.5Hz and 75Hz. However, at 75Hz the motor/gearbox combination would be capable of providing 95 N-m.
In other words, the motor would be very lightly loaded. Still not what I'd consider ideal, but getting closer. Play with the gear ratios, possibly the motor full-load speed, and an optimal solution can be found.
Now, what if the application is a conveyor belt? A conveyor is a constant-torque application. That is, it requires the same amount of torque regardless of the speed, with the singular exception of - once again - starting. However, let's say in this application the conveyor can be started with the mechanical variable speed drive in its highest speed setting, so now the worst-case torque is 2 x 17.
5 N-m, or 35 N-m.
Again, your maximum shaft speed is 300 RPM and minimum shaft speed is 50RPM, so some gear reduction is needed to keep the new motor operating somewhere reasonably near nameplate speed. Again, let's assume a four-pole motor with a 1450RPM nameplate rating at 50Hz. 1450/300 yeilds 4.83:1 reduction, so either a gearbox, V-belts and sheaves or a chain drive can be configured to get us 5:1 reduction (and 5x torque multiplication).
With a starting torque requirement of 35 N-m at the conveyor, we divide by 5 to get the starting torque requirement at the motor shaft - 7 N-m. Seven Newton-meters represents 150% of the motor full-load rating, so 7/1.5 = 4.67 N-m rated at 1450RPM, or 0.71kW. The closest standard rating is 0.75kW. So, a 0.75kW motor, a 5:1 gear reduction and a 0.75kW inverter are required. So we have two applications for your 0.55kW mechanical variable speed drive, and the inverter/motor replacements are VASTLY different.
Application is everything, because application defines the worst-case torque requirements. I've been doing this for a living for more than 25 years now, and I've replaced a LOT of misapplied drive systems where worst-case torque was not properly considered. Hope this helps.What is the best practice or strategy to replace a mechanical variable speed drive asynchronous motor with a regular asynchronous motor and a frequency inverter?.
Induction motor works on the principle of induction i.e., when the power supply is given to the stator, it produces rotating magnetic field which gets induced in the rotor of induction motor causing rotor to rotate. As the rotor of the induction motor starts rotating only after receiving induced emf from stator, it always rotates with the speed less than that of the stator.
The rotor and stator of induction motor do not run at same speed. As they run at Asynchronous speed they are called Asynchronous motor. In case of synchronous motor the rotor receives separate excitation from external supply which makes the rotor to rotate synchronously with stator.
The AC chair Car (code CC) coaches have 3x2 seating… each row has three seats on one side of the aisle while the other side has two. A LHB coach typically seats 78 passengers.The Executive Chair Char (EC) coaches have 2x2 seating and more legspace, and bigger windows if I am not wrong.
It seats 56 passengers.
Leg space is more as it has 14 rows compared to the 16 of CC.In addition, there is usually a sizeable difference in the food offered. I am not too sure of Gatimaan food as I have never traveled on it.
Well itu2019s obviously an electrical issue (just call me Captain Obvious)To me it sounds like a bad ground. The clicking is probably a relay latching and unlatching. A bad ground could also cause the gauges to stop working.
The door locks are a bit of a mystery as to why they unlocked but I assume it is also related to the same issue.To fault trace this will require someone who is very familiar with auto electrical systems, has a good multi meter, and a full set of wiring diagrams for your car.A careful examination of all the various systems in the car fining out exactly which systems work and which donu2019t is the first step and next is some serious time with the wiring diagrams to determine areas where the affected systems come together.
Then carefully testing should find the problem.What causes fuel gauge and temperature gauge to stop working? Also, there is a loud continuous clicking in the dashboard. I was driving and my automatic door unlocked then the gauges stopped working.