Why Study the Sun? What Is the Magic of Exploring the Sun When the Deep Space Age Comes?

On October 14, at Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, China's first scientific and technological test satellite for solar exploration, Xihe, successfully lifted off with a long march-2 D carrier rocket, opening the way for flower growers to explore the sun. The name Xihe comes from the name of the sun goddess in ancient mythology, which contains the meaning of "imitating Xihe to control heavenly horses and aim to herd stars in the sky".

The process of human chasing the sun began from the era of totem worship. The primitive indigenous people once worshipped the sun as a God, and there are records about the sun in our own ancient books. The earliest sunspot record recognized in the world is in the annals of the five elements of the Han Dynasty: "at the end of March B in the first year of chengdi Heping, the sunrise is yellow and black, as big as money, and lives in the center of the sun". In the west, until 1610, Galileo, an Italian astronomer, saw sunspots with a telescope for the first time and found that sunspots were a very common phenomenon on the solar surface.

Until today, the pace of studying the sun has not stopped, still heading deep. Over the past decade, more and more achievements have been made in aerospace technology and deep space exploration. SpaceX has successfully recovered rockets. The blue origin of the Bezos family has sent its boss Bezos into space. Manned spaceflight has entered the commercialization stage. With the rapid development of aerospace technology, the technology of exploring Japan has also followed. Human beings have been chasing the sun. Why are people keen to study the sun? What are the current research results? What challenges and problems have you encountered on the road of chasing the sun?

Why study the sun?

The explanation we learned from the book is that the sun is a star with continuous nuclear fusion, resulting in continuous luminescence and heating. Due to the huge mass of the sun, other planets in the solar system rotate around it. The huge heat of the sun gives energy to the survival of life on earth. Under the gravity of the sun, the earth's autobiography and revolution give the diversity of biological life. The sun is closely related to the earth's ecological environment.

In the coronal layer on the surface of the sun, countless charged particles flow to the external radiation every day. These charged particle flows are also known as the solar wind. The earth is also within its scanning range. These particle flows are constantly attacking the earth at a speed of more than 500 km / s, interfering with the earth's magnetic field, damaging the structure of the earth's ionosphere and causing the interruption of radio communication.

These violent solar winds will have a great impact on human production and life:

1. The violent solar wind will have a destructive impact on all satellites around the earth and seriously interfere with the functional operation of electronic equipment inside the satellite.

2. The solar wind will affect the health of astronauts stationed on the space station.

3. Solar particles affect the electromagnetic signals on the ground of the near earth environment. Once hit by the solar storm, it will lead to power failure and network disconnection in some areas of the earth. All economic activities and life related to network and power in these areas will be suspended, resulting in huge economic losses.

The research on the sun will be able to understand the interaction between the solar wind, solar particles and the near earth environment, master the laws and characteristics of the solar wind, help the normal operation of space weather and spacecraft, and reduce or avoid the adverse impact on the near earth environment. From the earliest pioneer to the solar orbiter which is closer to the sun than mercury, a number of solar exploration missions have been carried out internationally, and the technologies and tools for exploring the sun have also changed in recent decades.

From telescopes to satellites

In addition to naked eye observation, the earliest tool to study the sun was the astronomical telescope. Through this tool, humans observed the operation laws of many planets. These telescopes are usually equipped with special filters to block out harmful parts of the sun's light. Professional astronomers use more advanced instruments to observe the solar surface and coronal layer, and need telescopes with different spectra. The research direction of radar observation is mainly solar radiation, acoustic interferometry and other technologies to study the interior of the sun. Satellites can detect the solar particle flow and radio frequency, and remotely observe the solar surface and space weather close to the earth.

With the in-depth development of aerospace technology, the use of satellite detectors to observe the sun is the most important tool and way. The benefits of solar exploration in space are not only closer, but also increase by orders of magnitude. Due to the existence of the earth's atmosphere, most of the light band radiation, such as most of the high-energy radiation such as ultraviolet and infrared, X-ray and gamma ray, is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere before reaching the ground. If the sun is observed on the ground, only visible light and limited radio radiation can be observed. Such a limited range is narrow for the study of the sun. The advantage of satellite is that it can completely separate from the influence of the earth's atmosphere and study the sun from various bands, so as to draw a complete solar image.

At present, the best solar probe in orbit is the Parker solar probe launched by NASA in 2018, which has created the record of the closest man-made object to the sun in history. Its set distance is about 6.1 million km, which means that the probe needs to enter the coronal layer. We know that the temperature of the coronal layer is particularly high (Parker needs to overcome the high temperature of 1400 ℃), It not only has to endure high temperature, but also maintain the normal operation of tens of degrees of internal room temperature, which is numbing in difficulty and technology.

From astronomical telescope to radar to satellite close-up observation, we are faced with technical challenges:

1. In order to ensure high accuracy analysis, a multi-layer safety redundancy system must be designed to ensure the reliability of data and avoid being affected by the high-energy electron flow of solar wind.

2. Like making solar detectors similar to or beyond Parker, when observing the sun at close range, it is necessary to prepare ultra-high temperature resistant materials. Both inside and outside the detector need the blessing of these special materials. It is extremely difficult to find and synthesize these superconducting high temperature resistant materials.

3. The magnetic pole of the sun will flip in a solar cycle (11 years), so it is necessary for satellites with long service life to fully observe the activities of the whole solar cycle.

4. Not only to prevent the invasion of solar storms, solar detectors also need to be designed and developed to prevent the interference and influence of other high-energy electric ions in space.

The ultra long flight in deep space is the peak of Aerospace Science and technology. Especially flying towards the ultra-high temperature furnace of the sun, we should not only solve the ultra-long-distance energy problems, complex temperature changing environment, solar storm... But also calmly deal with the crisis at any time in the long journey of hundreds of millions of kilometers. It can be said that every second of the distance is full of accidents and difficulties. Under such conditions, these solar detectors have brought great benefits to human research.

Day by day to the future

Space technology has developed since 1960, and scientists have begun to detect and study solar activities. At present, more than 70 solar observation satellites have been launched all over the world, mainly focusing on the observation and research of surface mass ejections such as sunspots, flares and corona. We know that modern solar research mainly focuses on comprehensive observation and near Earth Observation of solar structure, magnetic field and sunspots. Due to the space problem, I will only introduce some influential main achievements:

1. The Ulysses probe of the European Space Agency showed astronomers the change of the solar magnetic field. It was once thought that the change of the solar magnetic pole would be very rapid. Thanks to Ulysses' observation, it was found that this process is a gradual process, which may take about seven years to change.

2. The detector finds the law of sunspots. After the solar minimum period, the number of sunspots will gradually increase, form at the latitude of 35 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres of the sun, reach the equator and finally disappear, and the bright spots of the corona will also move from the high dimension to the equator.

3. The solar terrestrial relationship observation platform, the world's first twin solar observation satellite launched by the United States, has carried out three-dimensional imaging of the sunspot outbreak, allowing scientists to study the surrounding environment of the sun and the impact of solar activities on the whole solar system in a three-dimensional way for the first time.

4. After the Parker solar probe was launched, it helped scientists find the source of the solar wind. The low-speed solar wind appeared near the coronal hole near the equator, with a speed of less than 450 kilometers per second; Near the solar polar region, the high-speed solar wind blows at a speed of more than 450 kilometers per second. The reason for the final ultra-high speed acceleration of the solar wind has also been found, and the rotation speed of the sun has also been found to be much faster than we thought, giving researchers a new perspective on the evolution of stars.

This is a relatively new and important achievement at present, and the future exploration of the sun will focus on the deployment of three-dimensional detection system to explore the sun in an all-round way. This three-dimensional exploration scheme is also proposed by our florists. For this three-dimensional detection system scheme, detectors will be deployed at five points on the ecliptic plane and the polar orbit in the future to realize "encircling" observation of the sun. The probe, especially the polar probe, needs five years to fly in place. The time given by NASA is to build an omni-directional three-dimensional detection system for the solar polar region around 2035.

Although there are many previous papers on the study of the sun, our research is based on the second-hand data of exploring the sun in other countries. It is difficult to make an impact on astronomy and lead solar research. The achievements of original innovation must be based on the development of spacecraft with its own solar exploration ability, and the deployment and planning of three-dimensional system for solar exploration will greatly change our position in the academic circle of solar research: the great change from follower to leader can be expected in the future.

The end result of the solar detector is to decompose and fall to the sun step by step after the energy is exhausted, and become a part of the cosmic dust. However, mankind's pursuit of the sun will never stop. The puzzles about the sun and the answers to the solar storm are the direction that mankind wants to conquer. Even if it is a slim hope, mankind will move forward with iron head until the moment when mankind dies.

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What Are the Advantages of LED Light Source DLP Splicing Products
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What a heartfelt tribute to your dad. To reminisce about the days back when, is something we all do now and then. I also, am wishing my dad a Happy Fathers Day in heaven, missing him so much. Great write TBO......1. What do you buy a redneck stepdad for Fathers Day???????Red neck? Sun cream, of course!2. What are good fathers day ideas for 11 year old to make?well, i have two dads and im thirteen. it really depends on his hobbies. if he likes to fish then take him fishing all day off a nearby bank with your fishing rods and buy him a cheap tackle box with stuff. if he hunts then buy him a holster for his gun or a gun cleaning kit. or you could always go with the eassy way and get him a gift card from the usuals for dads like home depot, lowes, walmart, or even gander mt. you could do what i did and go to the mall and get your picture on a necklace and can get it engraved for like fifteen dollars..... make him something might work too. hope it helps!!!3. What should I get my dad for fathers day?not something, until my dad has not provided me any finacnial help for college, he promised that he grow to be gonna pay for specific stuff yet he spent his funds on my stepmother and her babies. He additionally forgot approximately my 18th birthday/Christmas/severe college graduation, now i am approximately to instruct 19 in July. Me and my dad do not get alongside4. Family Problems :( (Fathers day)?You should do what you actually likes to do. It wo not be good for us to judge your father. You can understand him better. So, it is simple, if you want to go, then go. If you do not want, then do not go.5. I Need Advice For A Fathers Day Present.?present of Time is often the well known presents at our homestead. additionally a letter expressing how plenty your father potential to you or a particular reminiscence the two one among you shared. Burning a cd along with his well known tunes must be an option too.6. fathers day gift idea?in case you reside close sufficient, take your dad out for a meal. As a discern, between the main specific issues a baby grants is their time, one-on-one. it is not relating to the meal, that's the time spent at the same time. And the memory will final longer than maximum tangible presents. dad and mom often have already got maximum each and every thing they want and time spent with their young ones is a few thing that basically you grants and that they might't purchase for themselves7. What did you buy for your father for fathers day?jordan shoes8. What are you getting your dad/husband for fathers day?i got him this picture frame from the dollar store and its a trianglular shape and its also a pencil holder its really cute !! what about you ? Happy Fathers Day !!9. Need quotes for a fathers day Gift?I saw some quotes on this website10. What should I buy my boyfriend for Fathers Day if we havn't been dating that long and I don't have much money?A sexy dinner alone together11. what is a good fathers day gift under $20 and where can i buy it?How about you get him a Lowe's gift card for EXACTLY $20?12. what do you have planned for fathers day tomorrow?kick my dad in his balls for no reason13. i need help finding a good recipe for fathers day?How sweet of you to want to make dinner for your dad! He might like this spicy Creamy Cajun Chicken Pasta recipe: SERVES 2 Ingredients * 4 boneless skinless chicken breasts, cut into thin strips * 8 ounces linguine, cooked al dente * 4 teaspoons Cajun seasoning (more or less, to taste) * 4 tablespoons butter * 2 thinly sliced green onions * 2-3 cups heavy whipping cream * 4 tablespoons chopped sun-dried tomatoes * 1/2 teaspoon salt * 1/2 teaspoon dried basil * 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper * 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder * 1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese Directions 1. Place chicken and Cajun seasoning in a bowl and toss to coat. 2. In a large skillet over medium heat, saut chicken in butter or margarine until chicken is tender, about 10 to 15 minutes. 3. Reduce heat add green onion, heavy cream, tomatoes, basil, salt, garlic powder, black pepper and heat through. 4. Pour over hot linguine and toss,with Parmesan cheese. Good luck!
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MediaTek Helio X30 Specification Leakage, Transmission and Production TSMC 10 Nm
MediaTek Helio X30 Specification Leakage, Transmission and Production TSMC 10 Nm
MediaTek's "Helio X20" system single chip is the world's first deca core central processing unit (CPU), and then launched a slightly faster Helio X25, which will be built in "Meizu Pro 6" and "LETV le2" smartphones in the future. Now, according to the latest news, MediaTek plans to start building a "Helio x30" using TSMC's 10 nm process technology, and the latest specifications flow out.On the 30th, phone arena and gsmarena quoted China's MTK mobile network as saying that people familiar with the matter disclosed that x30 will further tap the potential of three clusters and ten cores. It is confirmed that it will not only apply the 10 nm process, but also adopt the TSMC 10 nm FinFET process. It is estimated that the "tape out" will be successful as soon as June, and it is expected to achieve mass production by the end of the year.Although Helio x30 is still the "three clusters and ten cores" design proposed by MediaTek, it has been greatly improved in terms of processor core and main frequency. X30 will be composed of ten cores, including two a7x 2.8GhZ, four A53 2.2GHz and four A35 2GHz. Among them, two a7x cores are not accurately named for the time being. It is the latest product of arm, code named "Artemis", It will not be officially released until the middle of the year at the earliest. Compared with A72, Artemis has at least 20% performance improvement and reduced power consumption.The A35 has excellent power-saving efficiency and 40% faster computing speed than the previous cortex-a7 core. In addition, Artemis is the next generation core produced by arm after cortex-a72, which should compete with Qualcomm's kryo solution. Using TSMC's 10 nm process means that the power saving efficiency will be 100% higher than that of Helio X20.Not only the process and the core / main frequency are greatly upgraded, the network part of Helio x30 is also significantly strengthened. The x30 will return to the embrace of img, integrate powervr 7-series MP4 GPU, support up to 26 million graphic lenses, dual cameras and VR technology. The network will support all Netcom and support cat.13 standard (previously transferred to cat.10).However, the above news is only a rumor, and we'd better have reservations about it.
Car Parking Light Bulb Question?
Car Parking Light Bulb Question?
extremely tough step. seek on to yahoo or google. that will may help!1. Who invented the light bulb?Humphrey Davey was actually the inventor2. How Long Should Headlights Last? | Blog | PowerBulbs UKIf you are trying to guess how long your headlights should last, you will first need to consider the type of bulbs in your headlights. There are three common bulb types on the market today-halogen, HID, and LED bulbs. Each has their benefits, but we will focus on longevity for now. Out of all three types of bulb, halogens rank the worst in terms of longevity. Estimates for the lifespan of a halogen bulb range from 500 to 1,000 hours, depending on the exact bulb used. You can choose maximum performance bulbs, which will give you brighter light but a shorter lifespan. More budget-conscious or eco-friendly drivers might opt for an eco or long life bulb. Halogen bulbs in this category last two or three times longer than standard bulbs, though you may notice they are not quite as bright. Next up are HID bulbs. These bulbs last much longer than halogen bulbs, but still fall short of the impressive longevity offered by LED bulb. An HID bulb should last anywhere from 2,000 to 3,000 hours. That's up to six times longer than the shortest-lived halogen bulbs. With an HID bulb, you should get several years' worth of use before the bulb needs to be replaced. Of course, this will depend on your driving habits. Finally, LED bulbs last the longest of all three headlight bulb types we've discussed. LED bulbs can last as long as 30,000 hours. That's enough to make it through the entire lifespan of many vehicles, meaning you may never have to replace LED bulbs. However, not all LED headlight bulbs are street legal, so be sure to check before installing LED headlights. Getting the most life out of your headlight bulbs If you are interested in squeezing every last hour out of your headlight bulbs, there are a few steps you can take to ensure your bulbs wo not need to be replaced anytime soon. For one, consider upgrading your headlights. As we said before, HID bulbs last much longer than halogen bulbs. If your vehicle currently uses halogen headlight bulbs, you can purchase an HID conversion kit. This will allow you to use HID bulbs instead, and you will find yourself changing out your bulbs much less often. HID bulbs have many other advantages. They give off a brighter light and have a higher colour temperature, which many drivers prefer. If upgrading your entire headlight does not sound appealing or is not in the budget right now, there are steps you can take to get the most life out of your halogen bulbs. The most obvious, of course, is to use your headlights less frequently. You only need your headlights at night or during inclement weather. On sunny days, turn your headlights off to help them last longer. Switching to an eco or long-life halogen bulb can also improve longevity. As we mentioned earlier, these specially-designed bulbs can last anywhere from two to six times longer than standard halogen bulbs. It's also important to consider how much longevity really matters to you. Some drivers hate the idea of going to the mechanic to have their bulbs changed. But changing out your headlight bulbs should be a simple process that you can do at home in just a few minutes. Another concern for many drivers is the cost of buying new headlight bulbs. Keep in mind that while HID or LED bulbs last longer, they cost more upfront. Halogen bulbs, on the other hand, are relatively inexpensive, so changing them more frequently should not cost a fortune.3. Whats the better light bulb?If you can make the down payment on $50 a bulb, LED's have none of the problems of cfl's, use less energy (about half that of cfl's) and last something like 40 or 50 times as long as normal bulbs and about 8 times longer than cfl's. I think they are fantastic. over their lifetime they are even cheaper than cfl's4. What is a vapor light bulb?Any light bulb that uses electric flowing through a vapor to make light. This includes florescent, high and low pressure Sodium, Mercury vapor, metal halide, neon...
Dear Chefs: Should I Use Extra Virgin Olive Oil with My Gourmet Pasta Or Regular Olive Oil?
Dear Chefs: Should I Use Extra Virgin Olive Oil with My Gourmet Pasta Or Regular Olive Oil?
dear chefs: should i use extra virgin olive oil with my gourmet pasta or regular olive oil?who doesnt love a virgin huh huh ??? wink wink lol lol— — — — — —Can you substitute extra virgin olive oil for vegetable oil in a recipe?yes, although the olive oil would taste alot better and it better for your health, but oil is oil and you can almost always replace the type with another— — — — — —Any tips on how to control eczema?When I was your age, I had eczema on my hands and feet - do not need to tell you how horrible it was - my hands were like raw meat for 5 long years. saw the doctors and was told the same as you - this will never go away, all you can do is control it. I started doing my own research. and what I found has completely 100% CURED my eczema - I have not had an outbreak in 20 years. it's gone. All skin problems like eczema come from having unhealthy skin. so, the skin is unhealthy, and that allows things like eczema, psoriasis etc. to get a foothold. The skin is not healthy enough to stop the problem. So, the number one thing to focus on is to have healthy skin. I was on cortisone type cream - did not help. I was told to moisturize 8 times a day, did not help. Finally, I found what would work. I hope this will help you. Our bodies make Gamma linolic acid (GLA) and this sort of 'seals' the skin surface. but if the body is not able to make enough GLA, then the skin is not protected, it is not healthy. there are 2 plants that make GLA - the borage plant, and the primrose - by taking borage oil or primrose oil - available at all the health food stores and some pharmacies - you GET the GLA without having to rely on your body making enough. It is a supplement, but really a food - it's just oil, so no side effects, no addictions etc. I have no idea why my body was not making enough, but as long as I take borage or primrose oil daily, I have literally been fine. It did take a few weeks though, to fully clear up for good. the oil is not cheap - the seeds from the plant are handpicked etc. Try taking vitamin E, as well, also known to be good for the skin. both these oils moisturize from the inside out. much better than slathering yourself with moisturizers. Definitely avoid anything you are allergic to - stay away from the caffeine, even if the oil works. Take extra Vitamin C - which is an immune booster, and helps reduce stress (stress often triggers skin conditions) Drink lots of plain water - stay hydrated Avoid harsh chemicals on the skin, INCLUDING soap, non-soap cleaners AND moisturizers. these all dry out (damage.) your skin at this point. stay away from them for now, at least. Moisturize with raw coconut oil - the polynesians have been using it for hundreds of years and have beautiful skin and hair. It is all natural, no additives, no chemicals. I have been using it for years, and it feels good on the skin. Apply very little, and if you put on too much, just blot it off. you could use other raw oils, such as extra virgin olive oil, but I have found that to be too heavy, clogs pours. there are probably others (shea butter?) I do not know, because I only use the coconut oil. For washing. skin has an acid mantle - everytime you use soap, you strip off the acid which again, makes your skin vulnerable. apple cider vinegar restores the acid mantle to skin and hair. so in a bathtub of water, you would add 2 cups of apple cider vinegar. to a sinkful of water, just to wash your face etc. add just 1/4 cup of apple cider vinegar - if you can find the raw apple cider vinegar, that is BEST - it is loaded with vitamins and minerals. and is a natural deodorizer. do not worry about the vinegar smell, it goes away when it dries. you wo not smell like french fries. :-) Do not use any other type of vinegar - again, apple cider vinegar is natural. If you use soap, be sure to rinse in the vinegar water. to restore the acid mantle. for example, you could take a shower, use soap (very little), and then fill a jug with warm water and splash of vinegar, and dump that over yourself. air dry if possible. or wait a bit and then pat dry. I hope this will help, but whatever you do, keep looking for ways to improve your skin health, and the eczema will go away.
What Is a Quartz Crystal Oscillator_ the Frequency of Quartz Crystal Oscillator Is Affected by the E
What Is a Quartz Crystal Oscillator_ the Frequency of Quartz Crystal Oscillator Is Affected by the E
Quartz crystal oscillator, also known as quartz resonator, is made of quartz crystal with piezoelectric effect. This kind of quartz crystal sheet will produce mechanical vibration under the action of external alternating electric field. When the frequency of alternating electric field is the same as the natural frequency of quartz crystal, the vibration becomes very strong, which is the response of crystal resonance characteristics. Using this characteristic, quartz resonator can be used to replace LC (coil and capacitor) resonant circuit, filter, etc. Because quartz resonator has the advantages of small volume, light weight, high reliability and high frequency stability, it is used in household appliances and communication equipment. Quartz resonators are mainly used as resonant elements in oscillation circuits requiring very stable frequency because of their high frequency stability.Piezoelectric effectIf an electric field is applied to the two electrodes of the quartz crystal, the wafer will be mechanically deformed. On the contrary, if mechanical force is applied on both sides of the wafer, an electric field will be generated in the corresponding direction of the wafer. This physical phenomenon is called piezoelectric effect.If alternating voltage is applied to the two poles of the wafer, the wafer will produce mechanical vibration, and the mechanical vibration of the wafer will produce alternating electric field. In general, the amplitude of the mechanical vibration of the wafer and the amplitude of the alternating electric field are very small, but when the frequency of the applied alternating voltage is a specific value, the amplitude increases significantly, which is much larger than the vibration at other frequencies. This phenomenon is called piezoelectric resonance, which is very similar to the resonance phenomenon of the LC circuit. Its resonant frequency is related to the cutting mode, geometry and size of the wafer.Composition of quartz crystal oscillatorThe basic composition of a quartz crystal oscillator is roughly as follows: cut a thin sheet (called a wafer, which can be square, rectangular or circular, etc.) from a quartz crystal according to a certain azimuth, apply a silver layer on its two corresponding surfaces as electrodes, weld a lead on each electrode to the pin, and then add the packaging shell to form a quartz crystal resonator, Quartz crystal or crystal, crystal oscillator; The crystal element with IC added into the package to form the oscillation circuit is called crystal oscillator. Its products are generally encapsulated in metal shell, but also in glass shell, ceramic or plastic.The frequency is affected by the external environmentThe frequency range of quartz crystal oscillator is very wide, and the frequency stability is in the range of 10-4 10-12. After calibration, the accuracy of 10-9 can be maintained within one year. The frequency accuracy of high-quality quartz crystal oscillator can reach 10-11 when it is often calibrated.The frequency of quartz crystal oscillator is not fixed, and many factors can affect it. For example, temperature can change it, so there will be the birth of "temperature compensated crystal oscillator".Temperature characteristic curve of frequencyTemperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) plays a role of temperature compensation by reducing the change of oscillation frequency caused by the change of ambient temperature through an additional temperature compensation circuit. The principle of temperature compensation crystal oscillator temperature compensation is to compensate the frequency drift of the resonator due to the change of ambient temperature by changing the load capacitance in the oscillation circuit.For example, the frequency accuracy of a quartz crystal oscillator is ± 20ppm, but it may be affected by voltage variation of ± 1ppm, welding temperature of ± 5ppm, mechanical vibration and impact of ± 3ppm, temperature range of ± 5-20ppm, etc. These are very common factors affecting the frequency accuracy of quartz crystal oscillator, which must be taken into account.The following are the parameters related to the effect of frequency affected by the external environmentFrequency accuracy: when the nominal power supply voltage, nominal load impedance, reference temperature (25 ℃) and other conditions remain unchanged, the maximum allowable deviation of the frequency of the crystal oscillator relative to its specified nominal value, i.e. (Fmax Fmin) / F0;Frequency temperature stability: the maximum allowable frequency deviation without implicit reference temperature or with implicit reference temperature operating within the specified temperature range under nominal power supply and load;Frequency aging: system drift process of output frequency with time caused by aging of components (mainly quartz resonators) under specified environmental conditions. It is usually measured by the frequency difference in a certain time interval. For highly stable crystal oscillators, the aging rate (relative frequency change per unit time) is often used to measure the approximately linear unidirectional drift of the output frequency in a long working time.Fine tuning capacitor circuit in quartz crystal oscillatorIn addition, the tuning capacitor in the quartz crystal oscillator is used to adjust its frequency.Frequency adjustment range: the range of output frequency is changed by adjusting a variable element of the crystal oscillator.FM (voltage control) characteristics: including FM frequency offset, FM sensitivity and FM linearity.① Frequency modulation frequency offset: the output frequency difference when the control voltage of the voltage controlled crystal oscillator changes from the nominal maximum value to the minimum value.② Frequency modulation sensitivity: the change of output frequency caused by the change of unit applied control voltage of voltage controlled crystal oscillator.③ FM linearity: it is a measure of the transmission characteristics of the modulation system compared with the ideal straight line (least square method).
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