What Type of Questions Are Asked in the Written Test and in an Interview for Exicom, and What Is the

What type of questions are asked in the written test and in an interview for Exicom, and what is the procedure for hiring an ECE student?

Well I can help you in this case

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What are some tips for easily increasing test scores on the GMAT?

HOW TO PASS THE GMAT IN 30 DAYS.I am Lora Cross. I found some GMAT preparation methods from Meghan Quinn's f/r/e/e ebo0k: MBAtips888. com/2020/01/top-31-tips-to-get-gmat-760-score. html. Meghan Quinn is a famous CFO from KPMG in Honolulu, USA.1- Study every day. According to Meghan Quinn's advice, Start with the GMAT Official Guide to get a broad overview, and try to work on it consistently; even if you do not complete it (you should use a variety of resources). Even if you are working full time, you will need at least a couple hours in the morning and/or evening. Make sure you are sleeping, but if you can take time off work, do. Do not cram on the weekends only - that might work if you had 6 months, but with only one month to study, you will need to do at least some GMAT every single day.An easy time save is during your commute: if you take public transit, you can read or do problems on the bus / train / Uber pool. If you drive, you can listen to some content on a podcast or e-book. Use flash cards at red lights or just recite prime numbers while waiting to merge into traffic. At home, ask your spouse or roommate to ask you questions or discuss interesting problems with your brother or mother. There are many ways to incorporate GMAT studying into your everyday life without sitting at a desk and running problems every night. Mix it up for a month and you will feel immersed in the world of GMAT. And this makes sense; it should be your number one priority of your one-month GMAT study plan. 2- Identify weaknesses immediately. According to Meghan Quinn, So, what do you really need to focus on? Math skills super rusty? No idea how to approach Critical Reasoning? Ca not get through a Reading Comprehension passage in less than 4 minutes? There's an APP for that. And by APP, we mean Applied Practice Problems. Most of these problems are caused by long periods of time not using these concepts. But if you practice early and often, you can turn those perceived weaknesses into strengths.Depending on the area you struggle with, you can employ different strategies to get up to speed. Arithmetic got you down? Learn your multiplication tables by heart. Struggle with algebra? Do some FOILing exercises. Ca not get through Reading Comprehension passages? Read the Economist (or the Failing New York Times). We all inherently have some topics that are easier for us and others that are more challenging. The sooner you see your strengths and weaknesses objectively, the faster you can begin to modify your one month study plan for the GMAT.3- Study in short blocks, rotating concepts.According to Meghan Quinn, The biggest danger in your "Month of GMAT" is the risk of complete burn out. If you study only Quant for 7 hours on 4 hours of sleep, you will definitely fry your brain. Try to "hit" at least 3 different question-types each day. Maybe you do 1.5 hours of Reading, then 2 hours of Quant earlier in the day, take a break for a few hours, and come back to do 2 hours of Sentence Correction. We would discourage you from spending more than 2 hours on any one concept. It makes it harder for your brain to retain information, and you can quickly hit a saturation point where nothing new is registering.The burn out risk is similar to exercising at the gym. A lot of people are motivated on day 1, but quite a few drop out by day 15 or 30. You can study GMAT all day every day for maybe a week, then your friends want to grab a drink, a new episode of the Voice is on, or a million other distractions pull you away from the task at hand. You will not successfully study for the GMAT in one month if you hate every second of it. Turn it into a game and give yourself rewards, e.g. a candy bar, an hour of television, etc. The goal is to keep yourself motivated and interested, and the prospect of admission in 6 months or a degree in 3 years is not immediate enough for your brain to care.4- Review more than you think you need to. According to Meghan Quinn, Use the 40/60 rule. 40% maximum of your time should be spent actually answering questions. At minimum, 60% of your time should be spent reviewing incorrect questions, analyzing your strategies, reading up on Sentence Correction grammar, watching instructional Math videos, reading witty blogs, etc. These students are missing out on probably the most important part of the studying process: reviewing your mistakes. Especially if you are planning on preparing for the GMAT in only one month, you do not have time for such inefficient preparation. Imagine being a GMAT tutor, and someone sends you a list of questions they got wrong, and every other question involved factoring. Would it not be reasonable to tell this person that they need to review the concepts of factoring? Since you will often be acting as your own tutor, it falls upon you to make these kinds of observations. On any typical practice GMAT, making the same kind of mistake in more than one question generally indicates a gap in your knowledge. Many questions are difficult to interpret, or have tempting trap answers, but you will find weaknesses much faster by reviewing your work after a quick break than by jumping in and doing more problems again. We usually recommend a couple of hours between the exam and the review. No one wants to make a dumb mistake, but we all do them sooner or later. However making 1-2 dumb mistakes instead of 5-10 will increase your score by tens or even hundreds of points.One more suggestion for reviewing quant problems: whenever possible, look to change some arguments in the problem and see what happens. The question is asking you to divide by four, what would happen if you divided by eight instead. Or you have 3^3, what would happen if you had 3^4. We find that looking at five variations of the same question typically yields more information than doing five disparate problems. After all, just because you answer 1 million questions does not guarantee you a 750.According to Meghan Quinn, You should plan to take a minimum of 4 full length practice tests, including your diagnostic exam. You will probably need to "feel out" the pacing for the Verbal and Quant sections. It can be brutal, so do not be surprised if you do not finish one or both of them your first couple attempts.The final week or two, you might consider taking two practice tests per week, especially if you still do not have the timing down. Like anything else in life, to alleviate the nerves, you should practice. Public speaking is daunting, until you've done it 20 times and it's mundane and pedestrian. First dates are intimidating, until you've been on 50 of them and they become ordinary and predictable.Finally, stay positive. Recognize that what you are undertaking is (1) hyyuuuuge , and (2) admirable. Let the looming deadline motivate you to do as well as you possibly can. If you do not get the score you wanted, you've already set yourself with a solid base for the inevitable rematch (think Rocky II). Sometimes your studying may feel like three steps forward, two steps back, but now with one month of preparation, you can give the GMAT your best shot.

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Ti's Latest 60 GHz Millimeter Wave Sensor Solves the Application of Industrial Automation Millimeter
Ti's Latest 60 GHz Millimeter Wave Sensor Solves the Application of Industrial Automation Millimeter
Ultra high resolution single chip millimeter wave sensor can realize cutting-edge intelligent and autonomous operation.Beijing, November 8, 2018 - in order to promote millimeter wave sensor technology in global industrial applications, Texas Instruments (TI) recently announced the launch of an ultra-high resolution single chip complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 60 GHz sensor product line for industrial systems. Iwr6x millimeter wave sensor supports industrial automation applications through chip embedded processing unit, which can provide real-time decision-making and signal processing. The latest 60 GHz millimeter wave sensor will become the first package product including "AOP antenna package", which overcomes the traditional challenges related to radio frequency (RF) design, reduces the size to 75% and reduces the total cost.With the help of 60 GHz millimeter wave sensors, engineers around the world can integrate millimeter wave technology into the design of various robots, factory automation and building automation, and widely deploy it in the ISM band. Designed for industrial applications, the high-resolution iwr6x sensor provides an ultra wideband width of up to 4 GHz and can sense objects and motion with 16 times higher accuracy than the 24 GHz narrowband solution.Main features and advantages of iwr6x sensor·Cutting edge intelligent autonomous technology: integrated processing capabilities enable sensors to reduce false positives and make real-time decisions without the need for external microcontrollers or processors in many systems.·Ultra high resolution sensing: ultra wideband millimeter wave sensor can sense objects, people and very subtle movements (such as breathing and typing), and its resolution is 16 times that of 24 GHz sensor.·Optimized for industrial automation: millimeter wave technology expands the functions of building and factory automation, and realizes more intelligent personnel counting, motion sensing, robotics, safety protection and vital signs monitoring.·Improve system accuracy: the 60 GHz millimeter wave sensor can work in a compact space, under various lighting and environmental conditions, and through glass, plastic, gypsum board and other materials, which improves the accuracy of the existing system.·Simplify Industrial Design: designers can start working immediately with the help of "AOP antenna package", scalable software platform, specific application algorithms and a variety of reference designs.SupplyFrom November 12, iwr6843 is pre released and can be purchased directly through Ti store. Iwr6843 modular development platform (iwr6843-starter-bdl) and additional antenna module (iwr6843isk) are now available for sale.Learn more about the iwr6x sensor portfolio·Learn more about the new 60 GHz millimeter wave sensor portfolio.·Read our white paper to learn how 60 GHz millimeter wave sensors can achieve smarter industrial applications.·The iwr6843 reference design is used for personnel counting and area occupancy detection, including source code and algorithm.About Texas Instruments (TI)Texas Instruments (TI) is a global semiconductor design and manufacturing company, which has always been committed to the development of analog integrated circuits (IC) and embedded processors. Ti has the world's top talents who are determined to innovate and shape the future of the technology industry. Today, Ti is working with more than 100000 customers to create a better future.
Measuring Range and Test Instructions of Pencil Hardness Tester
Measuring Range and Test Instructions of Pencil Hardness Tester
Pencil hardness testerIntroduction: the tester is used to evaluate the hardness of the coating film. Scratch the paint film surface with a pencil with a 45 ° angle. The operator shall make sure that the hard pencil will not tear or damage the film. The tester can also be used to evaluate the hardness of decorative panels and the resistance of enameled wires to solvents.Pencil scratch hardness tester (manual)The tester evaluates the film hardness according to the method of the testing machine. Scratch the paint surface with a pencil with an angle of 45 °, and the operator shall make sure that the hard pencil will not tear or damage the coating film. The tester can also be used to evaluate the hardness of decorative panels and the solvent resistance of enameled wires.Pencil scratch hardness tester (electrical system)The model can move automatically without moving the pencil arm manually. We also have a two arm configuration that allows testing with two pencils at the same time.Measuring range: 120mmMeasurement object: coating hardness test of mobile phone shell, MP3 / MP4 shell, notebook computer shell and other digital products of home appliancesMeasurement accuracy: 0.00001Size: 240xCoating hardness test of shell of various home appliance digital products such as shell. The machine is electrically (semi-automatic) controlled. The machine moves through the transmission through a stepping motor to realize front and rear action, with low noise and stability! The test stroke can be adjusted according to specific requirements!Test instructions: scratch the coating surface with a hardness pencil to test the surface hardness of the coating layer. Fix the hardness pencil at an angle of 45 ° to make the front pen center contact with the coating layer surface, apply appropriate load, move the test platform at a certain speed (JIS specification 0.5mm / s) to make the coating layer surface move through the pen center, and the coating layer will not cause damage (scratch) The soft pencil grade can be regarded as the hardness of the coating layer.fqj
How Much Is the Bitcoin Digger? Latest Bitcoin Mining Machine Price
How Much Is the Bitcoin Digger? Latest Bitcoin Mining Machine Price
Bitcoin is a digital currency. Because its production needs a large number of computer algorithms, it has economic benefits. According to the current market price, a bit is about 3810 yuan. Such great economic value also makes people flock to it. If they want to produce bitcoin, they need a bitcoin mining machine. How much is a bitcoin mining machine? What is the configuration of bitcoin digger in 2017?How much is the bitcoin diggerThe price of bitcoin mining machine is different. Now the price of mining machine in the market ranges from tens of thousands to tens of thousands. The price of bitcoin mining machine is determined by the price of bitcoin, the energy consumption of mining machine and competitors. Bitcoin mining machines before 2014 have basically been eliminated in the north market. Unless electricity charges do not cost money, they have the value of mining.Most of the new coins born in the last year are POS coins, which do not need mining machines to mine. Of course, there are also one-time mining, such as Ruitai coins.Calculation of bitcoin mining machine revenueBased on an S9 ant miner, the current price is about 9500 yuan. The power is 1300 watts; After 24 hours of operation, 0.004549382 bitcoins (calculated based on the current 19000 yuan per coin) are dug out. The value = 86.4 yuan. The mining machine runs for 24 hours and needs 31.2 kwh of electricity.If the electricity charge is 0.6 yuan per degree. Then, your daily income is 86.4-31.2 * 0.6 = 67.68 yuan if the electricity charge is 0.35 yuan. Then, your daily income is 86.4-31.2 * 0.35 = 75.48 yuan, calculated by 0.3 yuan. One S9 miner needs 9500 / 77.04 = 126 days for static cost recovery.2017 bitcoin miner configurationThe requirements for the hardware, CPU, memory and hard disk capacity of the mining machine are not high. It is recommended to use a low-end CPU. There is no need to spend more money. The entry-level dual core Intel Celeron g1840 processor is sufficient. The most important is the requirement of graphics card. Mining mainly depends on GPU operation, and it is best to use amd graphics card.The above is the introduction of bitcoin mining machine. What should be reminded is that the market of bitcoin fluctuates rapidly recently. You should consider it clearly before you intend to invest in bitcoin mining machine.Latest price of bitcoin minerBitcoin prices continued to rise after 4:30 a.m. on December 7, and reached $14689 at 11 p.m. Subsequently, the price fell slightly, and the price of bitcoin was $13553 at 11:45. After that, the price of bitcoin began to rise again. At 4 p.m., the price of bitcoin stood at $15700, and at 5:15 p.m., the price fell slightly to $14445. Then the price rose all the way. At 1:45 a.m. on December 8, the price of bitcoin reached $17171. After that, the price showed a downward trend, and the price of bitcoin fell to $14141 at 5:30 a.m.On the 6th, the price of bitcoin stood at the $12000 level. Today, the highest price of bitcoin exceeded the $17000 level. In just two days, bitcoin rose by 43.09%. From the fundamental news, on the one hand, the amazing price of bitcoin is affected by the upcoming opening of bitcoin futures trading on the Chicago Options Exchange (CBOE). "Emerging asset classes" have attracted more institutions and investors and pushed up prices. On the other hand, the tense situation on the Korean Peninsula has triggered a geopolitical crisis and increased panic. At present, bitcoin has the attribute of international safe haven financial assets and has become a capital haven. People in South Korea are crazy about buying bitcoin and pushing up the price. According to the data of South Korea bithumb trading platform, the 24-hour bitcoin trading volume reached 109700, and the highest price reached 151562.20 yuanDue to the continuous record high price of bitcoin. Immediately, the number of mining investors increased, the spot of bitcoin mining machines was seriously out of stock, the mining machine market was in short supply, the second-hand mining machines were sold wildly, and the mining machine price also rose with the currency price. It is understood that the price of Xinwei mining machine B3 has risen to 15550 yuan / set, and the spot of ant S9 has been about 20000. This is not the situation seen by mining machine suppliers and miners, but the market trend has not been determined by unilateral factors since ancient times. However, on the whole, the mining income of bitcoin miners is still more than 200%. Therefore, even if the price of bitcoin miner has been rising, many miners are willing to invest. At present, the latest price of bitcoin Xinwei miner has exceeded 13000, and the latest price of ant S9 miner has reached 23000!
Test Method of LED
Test Method of LED
1. ForewordSemiconductor light emitting diode (LED) has been widely used in indicator light, signal light, instrument display, mobile phone backlight, vehicle light source and other occasions. With the continuous development of white LED technology, LED is more and more widely used in the field of lighting. In the past, there were no comprehensive national and industrial standards for LED testing. In production practice, it can only be based on relative parameters. Different manufacturers, users and research institutions have great disputes about this, which has greatly affected the development of domestic LED industry. Combined with the latest standards of LED test methods at home and abroad, and based on the actual needs of various application fields of LED, the author introduces the electrical characteristics, optical characteristics, switching characteristics, color characteristics, thermal characteristics, reliability and so on.2. Electrical characteristic test methodLED light intensity testLED is a unipolar PN junction diode composed of semiconductor inorganic materials. The relationship between voltage and current is called volt ampere characteristic. The electrical characteristic parameters of LED include forward current, forward voltage, reverse current and reverse voltage. The LED must be driven by appropriate current and voltage to work normally (as shown in Figure 1). Through the test of LED electrical characteristics, the maximum allowable forward voltage, forward current, reverse voltage and current of LED can be obtained. In addition, the optimal working electric power of LED can also be measured.The electrical characteristics of LED are generally tested by Voltmeter under the power supply of corresponding constant current and constant voltage source.3. Optical characteristic testCie-127 recommended LED light intensity test conditionsSimilar to other light sources, the test of LED light characteristics mainly includes luminous flux, luminous efficiency, radiation flux, radiation efficiency, light intensity, light intensity distribution characteristics and spectral parameters.3.1 luminous flux and luminous effectThere are two methods for measuring luminous flux, namely integrating sphere method and variable angle photometer method. Variable angle photometer is the most accurate method to test luminous flux, but because it takes a long time, the integrating sphere method is generally used to test luminous flux. There are two test structures for measuring LED luminous flux by integrating sphere method. One is to place the measured led in the center of the ball, and the other is to place it on the wall of the ballMeasurement of LED luminous flux by integrating sphere methodWhen the integrating sphere method is used to test the luminous flux, the self absorption of the light source will affect the test results. Therefore, it is often necessary to introduce auxiliary lamp method to eliminate the influence of self absorptionAfter measuring the luminous flux, the luminous efficiency of LED can be measured with the electric parameter tester. The measurement method of radiation flux and radiation efficiency is similar to that of luminous flux and luminous efficiency.3.2 light intensity and light intensity distribution characteristicsProblems in light intensity measurementThe light intensity of the point light source is evenly distributed in all directions in space, and the test results received by detectors with different receiving apertures at different distances will not change. However, due to the inconsistent light intensity distribution of LED, the test results vary with the test distance and detector aperture. Therefore, cie-127 proposes two recommended test conditions so that each LED can be tested and evaluated under the same conditions, as shown in Figure 5. At present, cie-127 recommended test conditions have been quoted by LED manufacturers and testing institutions.Recommended LED light intensity test conditions3.3 spectral parametersThe spectral characteristic parameters of LED mainly include peak emission wavelength, spectral radiation bandwidth and spectral power distribution. The spectrum of monochromatic LED is a single peak, and its characteristics are expressed by peak wavelength and bandwidth, while the spectrum of white LED is synthesized by a variety of monochromatic spectra. The spectral characteristics of all LEDs can be represented by the spectral power distribution. The spectral power distribution of white LED is shown in Figure 6. The chromaticity parameters can also be calculated from the spectral power distribution of LED.The measurement of spectral power distribution needs to be carried out by light splitting, which can distinguish each color light from the mixed light for measurement. Generally, prism and grating can be used to realize light splitting.Spectral power distribution of white LED4. LED switch characteristic testLed switching characteristics refer to the optical, electrical and color change characteristics of LED at the moment of power on and power off. Through the test of LED switching characteristics, the change law of LED working state and material properties at the moment of power on and power off can be obtained, which can not only understand the loss of LED caused by power on and power off, but also guide the design of LED driving module.5. Color characteristicsThe color characteristics of LED mainly include chromaticity coordinates, main wavelength, color purity, color temperature and color rendering. The color characteristics of LED are particularly important for white LED.The existing color characteristic test methods include spectrophotometry and integral method. In spectrophotometry, the spectral power distribution of LED is measured by monochromator, and then the corresponding chromaticity parameters are obtained by chromaticity weighting function integration; The integration method is to directly measure the chromaticity with a specific color filter and a photodetector. The accuracy of spectrophotometry is much higher than that of integral method.Test method for color characteristics6. Thermal propertiesThe thermal characteristics of LED mainly refer to thermal resistance and junction temperature. Thermal resistance refers to the ratio of the temperature difference along the heat flow channel to the power dissipated on the channel; Junction temperature refers to the PN junction temperature of LED. The thermal resistance and junction temperature of LED are important factors affecting the photoelectric performance of LED.There are generally two methods to measure the junction temperature of LED: one is to measure the surface temperature of LED chip by infrared temperature measuring microscope or micro thermocouple and regard it as the junction temperature of LED, but the accuracy is not enough; The other is to determine the junction temperature of led by determining the inverse relationship between the forward bias voltage and the junction temperature under the current.7. ReliabilityThe reliability of LED includes electrostatic sensitivity characteristics, service life, environmental characteristics, etc. Electrostatic sensitivity refers to the electrostatic discharge voltage that an LED can withstand. Some LEDs have high resistivity and short distance between positive and negative electrodes. When the electrostatic charge at both ends accumulates to a certain value, this electrostatic voltage will breakdown the PN junction. In serious cases, it can breakdown the PN junction and lead to LED failure. Therefore, the electrostatic sensitivity characteristics of LED must be tested to obtain the ESD fault critical voltage of LED. At present, human body mode, machine mode and device charging mode are generally used to simulate the phenomenon of electrostatic discharge in real life.In order to observe the change law of LED performance during long-term continuous use, it is necessary to conduct sampling test on LED, and obtain the life parameters of led through long-term observation and statistics.For the test of LED environmental characteristics, various natural invasion methods encountered in the application of LED are often used, such as high and low temperature impact test, humidity cycle test, humidity test, salt spray test, dust test, irradiation test, vibration and impact test, drop test, centrifugal acceleration test, etc.Summarizing the above test methods, the national standard for test methods of semiconductor light emitting diodes has made corresponding provisions on the electrical characteristics, optical characteristics, thermal characteristics, electrostatic characteristics and life test of LEDs.For the electrical characteristic test, the standard specifies the test block diagram of led forward voltage, reverse voltage and reverse current respectively; For luminous flux test, 2 π solid angle test structure is specified in the standard; For light intensity test, the standard refers to the recommended conditions of cie-127; In addition, the spectral test, thermal characteristic test, electrostatic discharge sensitivity test and life test are clearly specified.conclusionThe formulation of national standards summarizes the existing LED test methods, and upgrades the scientific and applicable methods to standard test methods, which not only eliminates the differences in the LED test field, but also makes the test results more truly reflect the overall level of China's LED industry. However, in view of the continuous development of LED technology, the formulation of national standards is not once and for all. The latest and most appropriate testing technology should be introduced into the standards at all times.
How Does the Logic Analyzer Analyze the 485 Communication Port (test)
How Does the Logic Analyzer Analyze the 485 Communication Port (test)
Logic analyzer is an instrument for analyzing the logical relationship of digital system. Logic analyzer is a kind of Bus Analyzer belonging to data domain test [2], which is based on the concept of bus (multi line) and observes and tests the data flow on multiple data lines at the same time. This instrument is very effective for the test and analysis of complex digital systems. Logic analyzer is an instrument that uses clock to collect and display digital signals from test equipment. Its main function is to determine timing.Use steps of logic analyzer1. Hardware channel connection. First, we should connect the GND of the logic analyzer and the GND of the board to be tested to ensure the integrity of the signal. Then connect the channel of the logic analyzer to the pin to be tested, and the pin to be tested can be led out in a variety of ways.2. Channel number setting. Generally, most logic analyzers have 8 channels, 16 channels, 32 channels, etc. When we collect signals, we often don't use so many channels. In order to observe the waveform more clearly, we can hide the unused channels.3. Sample rate and sample depth settings. First of all, we should make a general evaluation of the maximum frequency of the measured signal, set the sampling rate to more than 10 times of it, and roughly judge the length of time of the signal we want to collect. When setting the sampling depth, we should try to set a certain margin. Divide the sampling depth by the sampling rate to get the time we can save the signal.4. Trigger settings. Due to the depth limitation of logic analyzer, it is impossible to save data indefinitely. When we use the logic analyzer, if we do not use any trigger settings, we start to calculate the time from the beginning of fetching until the storage depth we set is full, and then the fetching stops. In the actual operation process, a section of signal that starts to grab may be useless signal, and the useful signal may be one of them, but the useless signal still occupies our storage space. In this case, we can improve the utilization of storage depth by setting triggers. For example, if we want to grab UART serial port signal, and the serial port signal is high when there is no data, so we can set a falling edge trigger. Starting from clicking to grab, the logic analyzer will not save the captured signal to our memory, but will wait for the generation of a falling edge. Once the falling edge is generated, it will start the real signal acquisition and store the collected signal in the memory. In other words, the useless signals from the click to the falling edge are shielded by the trigger we set, which is a very practical function.5. Grab waveform. The logic analyzer is different from the oscilloscope. The oscilloscope displays the waveform in real time. The logic analyzer needs to click start to grab the waveform until the storage is full of the storage depth we set, and then we can slowly analyze the signals we catch. Therefore, it is necessary to click "start grabbing".6. Set protocol resolution (standard protocol). If the waveform you grab is a standard protocol, such as UART, I2C and SPI, the logic analyzer is generally equipped with a special decoder. You can set the decoder to not only display the waveform like an oscilloscope, but also analyze the data directly and display it in various forms such as hexadecimal, binary and ASCII codes.7. Data analysis. Similar to the oscilloscope, the logic analyzer also has various measurement markings, which can measure the pulse width, the frequency and duty cycle of the waveform. Through data analysis, we can find out whether our waveform meets our requirements, so as to help us solve the problem.1. First, use an oscilloscope with an ordinary probe to see the waveform, as shown in Figure 1.Fig. 1 waveform captured by oscilloscope with ordinary probeWe can clearly see that very large common mode interference is superimposed on the communication protocol signal. This common mode interference will completely disturb the judgment of protocol threshold level. Neither oscilloscope nor logic analyzer can set a reasonable threshold level for decoding.2. Use an oscilloscope with a differential probe to see the waveform, as shown in Figure 2.Fig. 2 waveform captured by oscilloscope with differential probeAfter using the differential probe, the common mode interference is eliminated and the waveform becomes perfect. With the protocol decoding function of zds2024plus, the corresponding protocol data can be directly decoded. From the following parameter measurement results, all parameters are normal. However, the oscilloscope can only catch the signal for a short period of time. Even if the zds2024plus has a storage depth of 250m, the longest waveform time observed is only 1400s, which can not monitor the protocol signal for hours or even days. However, there is almost no special differential probe for logic analyzer on the market.3. The 485 isolation module is used to cooperate with the single ended probe of the oscilloscope to observe the output waveform.We select RSM (3) 485echt enhanced isolated RS-485 transceiver, which supports the maximum 500K baud rate and can realize the isolation of 485 communication. As shown in Figure 3.Figure 3rs485 isolation moduleFor the waveform after isolation, use an oscilloscope to cooperate with an ordinary probe to observe the waveform, as shown in Figure 4:Figure 4 waveform captured by oscilloscope with common probe after isolationIt can be seen from the picture that using oscilloscope ordinary probe to measure the 485 signal after isolation can still obtain a relatively perfect waveform, which is equivalent to the effect of differential probe.4. After using 485 isolation module, use logic analyzer to monitor 485 communication waveform for a long time, as shown in Figure 5.Figure 5 logic analyzer records 140000 frames of signals with isolation moduleYou don't have to buy any differential probe. If you just monitor the signal on the RS485 bus, just use an RS485 isolation module. Turn on the logic analyzer and start the recording mode. Whether recording for a period or a day, it is completely OK.
The Ultimate Secret Behind the Greatest Bucket of Money in the World
The Ultimate Secret Behind the Greatest Bucket of Money in the World
Once you've picked your starting spot, here's how to get started: • Break apart the first few tiles using your chisel and hammer. • Remove the broken pieces and place them in a bucket. You do not need to worry about getting every piece, but getting the bigger chunks out of the way will help in the long run. • Inspect the underlayment of the floor to make sure there is no damage. • Use a pry bar to pull up tile that is not easily removed.Nice looking compost bucket?Organize.com has nice looking compost containersWhat's on your bucket list?- Own a farm - Find my soulmate - Have 3 kids - Find a job that I love - Learn to rock climb - Go on an overnight hiking trip - Buy a diesel truck - Go skydiving - Road trip across Canada with my best friends - Backpack Europe - Go to Australia/ New ZealandHelp! BUCKETS,BUCKETS,BUCKETS!?a saying is "raining buckets" uses, wash cars, carry dirt, use as a planter, do a fireman's water drill (pass the bucket of water), creative hat, use on a pully system to bring something up a ladder or other high space, use as a weapon by throwing it at someone, oil changes. That's all I got! Good luck!Ice Bucket?try Bed Bath and Beyond or Linnens N things. they have great stuffWhats on your "bucket list"?why in words & wordplay? I want to ride a Harley to the Bamas eat an octopus learn to skateProve $n1$ items in $n$ buckets implies some bucket has $2$ items.Induction will do it. If you have $n1$ items in $n$ buckets, with no more than one item per bucket, remove one nonempty bucket along with the item in it to be left with the exact same situation with $n$ replaced by $n-1$. Clearly, the case $n=0$ is impossiblebest way to clean a bucketBuckets are only a quid from B & Q, most of the time I sling them rather than clean them out. You will make @Nisus cry talking like that! He measures the age of his buckets in generations. His old tile adhesive tub that he uses for washing out is older than most apprentices.He only started using that when his original bucket started to wear thin from the cleaning it got.Summer bucket list-thing ideas?some things on my bucket list are •travel with my bestfriend •sleep on a hammock •have a Disney movie marathon sleepover •tye dye shirts •pool party •watch the sunset •camp in yard •meet new people •learn to skateboard •paint fight •grow my hair longer •bonfire •lemonade stand •road trip •play tag in the rain •night swimming •eat a whole box of Popsicles •chalk a driveway •water balloon fight“Bucket and chuck it” originThe earliest Google Books match for "bucket and chuck it" appears to be this one from Michael Bouquet, Westcountry Sail: Merchant Shipping, 1840-1960 (1971) [snippet not visible in window]:The helmsman stands on a grating with his back against two teak rubbing boards on the wheel shelter. To port, the wheel shelter houses the lavatory (of the bucket and chuck it variety); to starboard, a lamp store and paint locker.This is a boat-related example, but there is also this example from Suzanne Beedell, Water in the Garden (1973) [combined snippets]:. .just dip out the water with a bucket and chuck it around the garden, for even a small pool holds an awful lot of water (one of 6ft diameter and 15in deep holds 250-270 gallons).If you are lucky enough to have a clean stream running through your garden, then a small paddling pool with a continual flow of water is not too difficult to make. There is no problem about filling and emptying and keeping the water clean. Another early match is from Paul McClory, How to Use Natural Energy (1978):When Paul and Mary Garton bought their Suffolk cottage the only sign of main services was a brass cold water tap. The wattle and daub structure, with Tudor brick floors, had been "modernised" around 1800. "The old folk here drank the water from the pond until a few years ago", said Mrs. Garton as the builders worked on the renovation, "and sanitation was of the bucket-and-chuck-it-variety".Also, from Maurice Cloughly, A World to the West: A Voyage Around the World (1979) [combined snippets]:For several days we made poor progress in changeable weather while a variety of things on board went wrong. The toilet started playing up so we were forced for a time to resort to the time-honoured procedure of "bucket-and-chuck-it. " Seams in the mizzen lost their stitching. Jib sheet blocks tore loose out of the track.Another early match appears in Larry Brown, Sailing on a Micro-Budget (1985) [combined snippets]:Finally we come to everyone's favorite, the marine toilet. Coast Guard regulations forbid toilets that discharge wastes over the side. I find it strange that yachtsmen, who claim to love the sea, take such perverse pride in flouting the intent of this law. The law is worded in such a way that it is legal to go sailing with no toilet. Many sailors carry a sweet-smelling cedar bucket and operate on a "bucket and chuck it" philosophy.And here is another from a non-nautical setting, in Association of Applied Biologists, Field Trials Methods and Data Handling: 16-18 December, 1985, Churchill College, Cambridge (1985):The variability of the performance of pepperpot techniques for granules and hand application ('bucket and chuck it') for fertiliser, especially between seasoned hand and student has been noted and criticised by the farmers. No doubt a set amount of product has been dispensed over an area, but where, and how long has it taken? What is the coefficient variation with these techniques?The "time-honoured procedure of 'bucket and chuck it'" may well have originated (as Josh61's answer suggests) in the context of boats with limited waste-disposal facilities on board—but it's not impossible that, in the days before indoor plumbing became commonplace on dry ground, "bucket and chuck it" might have been used to describe a waste disposal method used in lieu of plumbing or inconvenient outdoor privies. It is also interesting that the same phrase is used for water distribution in a garden (1973) and for fertilizer distribution on crops (in 1985). Evidently, the human urge to gravitate toward rhymes involving bucket does not end with "There once was a girl from Nantucket."
Test and Application of It8700p Series Multi Input Programmable DC Electronic Load
Test and Application of It8700p Series Multi Input Programmable DC Electronic Load
It8700p series multi input programmable DC electronic load is improved and upgraded on the basis of it8700, inheriting the original removable modular design. The single frame can reach 8 channels and the extended frame can reach 16 channels. Users can freely select from 8 load modules according to their needs. At the same time, the front terminal is added to facilitate the wiring operation of the front panel, and can effectively realize the diversified test needs of users.It8700p has the functions of 25kHz dynamic test speed, adjustable slope, on-load waveform editing and LED simulation. It adds the functions of current upper limit, PLC setting and CV loop speed adjustment to further meet the test needs of different customers. Next, we introduce several common test applications.1. PC power dynamic testThe power supply with constant voltage output can continuously maintain its output voltage at the set voltage due to the feedback control loop in the design. But in fact, the feedback control loop has a certain bandwidth, which limits the response of the power supply to the change of load current. If the phase shift and gain of the input and output of the control loop are more than 180 degrees, the output of the power supply will be unstable, out of control or oscillatory. When the computer is working, the current changes dynamically rather than always remains unchanged. Therefore, dynamic load test is extremely important for PC power supply. Programmable electronic load can be used to simulate the worst load conditions of power supply in actual work, such as rapid rise of load current, slope of decline, cycle, etc. It8700p series has a dynamic mode of 25kHz, which can simulate the change of current under different operating states of the computer, so as to test the dynamic characteristics of PC power supply.2. Test of LED driving sourceGenerally, there are several test methods for LED driving source: 1. Test with real LED lamp; 2. Load with resistance; 3. Load in CR or CV mode using electronic load.However, these test methods have their defects. The LED has a forward conduction voltage VF. If the resistance is used for load pulling, the I ‐ V curve of the resistance cannot simulate the I ‐ V curve of the LED, which will cause the LED driving power supply to fail to start. When the customer uses the electronic load to pull the load, if the CR or CV mode can not meet the test of LED constant current source, the test voltage and current value will be unstable. Then, if the real LED is used as the load, because the actual LED driving power supply needs to supply LED lamps of different brands, different specifications and different series and parallel conditions, it will cost a high test cost to test various LED lamps one by one.If the electronic load can simulate various combinations of LEDs to test, it can achieve fast and low cost. The cr-led function of it8700p series modules can fully simulate the characteristics of LED lamps. The on voltage characteristics of diodes can be simulated by setting VD value to make the test more accurate. The multi-channel design greatly improves the test efficiency and can meet the batch test needs of manufacturers.3. Testing of electric bicycle chargerWhen using the electronic load simulation battery to test the electric bicycle charger, the Engineer may encounter the following situations: when using the CV mode of the electronic load, if the minimum charging voltage of the charger is taken as the load parameter value of the CV mode and the voltage is gradually increased, it is likely to load a large current value instantaneously during the test process. If the current overshoot time is long and the amplitude is large, it will lead to over-current protection of the charger. To solve this problem, it8700p series adds current upper limit function and CV CC composite operation mode, which can limit surge current.When the charger cannot be started due to overcurrent during the test, the engineer only needs to select CV CC (i-limit) mode and set the i-limit value to limit the adjustment of internal current not to exceed the overcurrent protection point of the charger, which can effectively solve this problem.The it8700 single-mode group has a maximum voltage of 500V and a maximum power of 600W. It has a resolution of 0.1mv/0.01ma and high precision. It has the function of automatic power distribution. It can synchronously pull multiple groups of electronic load modules. It has rich protection functions, including OVP / OCP / OPP / OTP / anti reverse connection protection function. It has built-in ether net / GPIB / USB / RS232 communication interface, which can meet the requirements of power supply, lighting, battery Multi channel test requirements of different industries such as photovoltaic.
Audio Power Amplifier Test Technology Based on LDO (lm4990 As an Example)
Audio Power Amplifier Test Technology Based on LDO (lm4990 As an Example)
If we want to understand the audio power amplifier, we must first understand the LDO test technology and DC parameter test in the LDO test, so that we can have a foundation, and then interpret the difficult chip test example, the audio power amplifier will be much simpler.This paper takes the popular audio power amplifier lm4990 as an example to introduce in detail. This example includes both DC test and AC parameter test, which belongs to the promotion of LDO. Being familiar with this example will be of great help to the large-scale SoC Test in the future, as follows:1. Chip introductionLm4990 audio power amplifier is suitable for mobile phones, music players, DVDs, laptops and other portable electronic products. Under the condition of 5V power supply and thd of output signal less than 1%, it can provide 1.25W continuous power to 8 Ω load. The working power supply voltage range of lm4990 is 2.2V 5.5V, and the gain can be set through external resistance. The basic application diagram and functional block diagram are as follows:2. Test parameters and specifications3. Test chartBased on the above test parameters, Eagle tester is selected for this example. Of course, V50, ASL1000 and AST2000 in the market can meet the test requirements. The latter two need to be equipped with relevant test boards. In contrast, eagle will be more suitable. See the following figure for details:4. Test item description:1: Open short test: it mainly tests whether the ESD protection diodes of each pin to the ground and the power supply are normal, and can also detect whether the connection state between the chip and the tester is normal, so it is sometimes called connectivity test.Test conditions: fss9 (VDD) = 0V, K1, K2 and K3 are disconnected. Except Vdd and GND pins, other pins pull out 100ua current, and test the voltage vsshort of pins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 respectively;Test specification: - 0.8 V vshorFss9 (VDD) = 0V, K1, K2 and K3 are disconnected. Except Vdd and GND pins, 100ua current is injected into other pins to test the voltage vopen of pins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 respectively;Test specification: 0.2 V vopen; 0.8 V2: Off current IQ test: this parameter mainly investigates the current power consumption of the chip in the off state. The smaller the better.Test conditions: shutdown = 0V, VDD = 3.6V, K1 and K2 are disconnected, K3 is closed, and the current IQ of VDD is tested;Test specification: IQ 1uA3: Static power consumption test of the chip under no load: this parameter tests the power consumption current of the chip when the chip works normally but there is no signal input. The smaller the current, the better.Test conditions: shutdown = 3.6 V, fss9 (VDD) = 3.6 V, K2 is disconnected, K1 and K3 are closed, and the current ICC of VDD is testedTest specification: ICC 6mA4: Fss9 (VDD) = 3.6V, static output common mode voltage test: it mainly detects the working voltage of the main pin when the chip works normally and there is no signal. Generally, the output voltage is half of the power supply voltage. If this parameter is normal, it indicates that the basic function of the chip is basically normal.Test conditions: shutdown = 3.6 V, fss9 (VDD) = 3.6 V, K2 is disconnected and K1 and K3 are closed. Under these conditions, test the DC voltage vbypass of apu13, DC voltage Vo1 of apu11 and DC voltage VO2 of apu14 respectively.Test specification:1.66V 《VBYPASS 《1.86 V1.65V 《VO1 《 1.85V1.65V 《VO2 《1.85 V-40mV〈Vos=VO1-VO2〈40mV5: Power amplifier gain and thd test under VDD = 3.6V: chip performance test. Gain is a main index of power amplifier. The chip gain set in this example is 2 times, that is, the output voltage amplitude is 2 times of the input voltage amplitude; thd parameter is another important index of power amplifier chip, thd is the total harmonic distortion. Its physical meaning is that the output signal cannot be original There will always be some distortion in the restored input signal, that is, some signals of other frequencies will be superimposed on the waveform. This parameter is to add up the amplitude of all these superimposed signals and compare them with the output signal with the same frequency of the input signal, sometimes expressed in percentages and sometimes expressed in decibels. See the introduction of thd for detailsTest conditions: shutdown = 3.6V, fss9 (VDD) = 3.6V, K1, K2 and K3 are closed, and a sinusoidal signal with peak to peak vsinp-p = 2Vp-p and frequency of 1kHz is input from apu10 end of the test circuit. Use the differential measurement meter to measure the voltage values at both ends of Vo1 and VO2, then make FFT, take out the peak to peak vop-p of the fundamental amplitude value, and obtain thd at the same time.Test specification:3.8V 《 VOP-P《4.2VTHD 《- 50dB6: Power test under the condition of VDD = 3.6V: this parameter tests the output power of the power amplifier. The method is the same as the previous parameter. Generally, the power test will take the thd value as the reference. Sometimes the power will be tested when thd = 10%, sometimes the power will be tested when thd = 1%. In this example, about 1% is selected for the test.Test conditions: shutdown = 3.6V, fss9 (VDD) = 3.6V, K1, K2 and K3 are closed, and a sinusoidal signal with peak to peak vsinp-p = 3vp-p and frequency of 1kHz is input from apu10 terminal in the test circuit. Use the differential measurement table to measure the voltage values at both ends of Vo1 and VO2, calculate their effective value Vout, and then according to the formula: Po = Vout × Vout/RLTest specification: Po 0.45w5. Debugging difficulties1. Openshort test is generally simple. As long as the connection is OK, you don't need to spend too much time debugging.2. For IQ test, you must remember to disconnect K1, because K1 is connected to the capacitor on the power supply to the ground. If K1 is closed, the capacitor must be charged first during the test, because the current range selected during IQ test will be relatively small, so it takes a long time to charge, wasting the test time. In addition, there is leakage in the capacitor, which will affect the test results, so K1 must be charged during the test to break off.3. ICC test is also relatively simple. It is OK to directly test the current at the power supply end. There is basically no problem, but remember that there can be no signal at the input end at this time, otherwise the test may be unstable. It can be directly controlled by apu7 plus 0V voltage4. The condition of static output common mode voltage test is the same as that of ICC test, but because bypass is terminated with 1uF capacitor, it needs to wait long enough to measure a relatively stable and accurate voltage value.5. The main difficulty of thd test lies in the structure of the test board, which is very important to the cleanliness of the ground wire. If the thd test value is too poor, please be sure to consider whether the layout of the ground wire is reasonable. In addition, the closer the bypass capacitor is to the chip pin, the better.6. During power test, because the current is relatively large, the output terminal must be tested with Kelvin contact, otherwise it can be debugged, but various problems will occur during mass production.6. Test dataDatalog for Serial#: 207, Site #2 **** DEVICE PASSED ****Software Bin Number: 1Hardware Bin Number: 1
Test of Network Performance of NXP LS Series Products by Feiling Embedded
Test of Network Performance of NXP LS Series Products by Feiling Embedded
Outside the nickname! Following the launch of ok1012a-c, Feiling embedded company has successively launched ok1043a-c, ok1046a-c and the latest ok1028a-c. ok10xx series products are also a large family. The so-called spring orchids and autumn chrysanthemums are good at winning. The following is a brief introduction to the network performance of each product. Let's talk about ok1012a-c first. The fet1012a-c core board used in ok1012 development board is designed based on the ls1012a processor of armcortex-a53 architecture of NXP company, and the main frequency is 1GHz. It supports up to two 2.5Gbps Ethernet controllers, equipped with hardware packet forwarding engine, and the network switching performance can reach line speed; Ok1012a-c development board leads to two-way Ethernet and supports 10m / 100M / 1000Mbps adaptation.Sgmii interface network performance test:PC-Server:root@localhost :#iperf3-sOK1012-Clien-TCP:root@localhost :#ethtool-Ceth0rx-usecs100root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.182-i1-t10-w100000Ok1012 clien UDP test:root@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.182-i1-t10–u–b1000MOK1012-Server:root@localhost :#iperf3-sPC-Client-TCP:root@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.200-i1-t10–w200000PC-Client-UDP:root@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.200-i1-t10–u–b1000MThen take a look at ok1043a-c.The fet1043a-c core board adopted by ok1043a-c is an ls1043a processor based on NXP's quad core armcortex-a53 architecture, with a main frequency of 1.6GHz. The core board bottom plate separation structure is adopted, which is connected through the COM interface, and the speed is guaranteed. Native supports 7 Ethernet: 1 10Gbps and 6 1000Mbps. Ok1043a-c development board actually leads out 6-way Ethernet and supports 1g / 100M / 10Mbps adaptation, including 4 through qsgmii and 2 through rgmii.Qsgmii interface network test:root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.181-i5-t60Rgmii interface network test:root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.181-i5-t60Take another look at ok1046a-c2.The feti046a-c core board adopted by ok1046a-c2 is based on the lsi046a quad core processor design of NXP company, with the main frequency of 1.8GHz and armcortex-a72 architecture. Native supports 8 Macs, and can support up to 2 XFI (10GbE) interfaces or 8-way lgbe Ethernet. Ok1046a-c2 has stronger data processing capability: 4-core armcortex-a72 processor can support up to 1.8GHz, 2gbddr4ram, data throughput up to 2.1gt/s, and performance up to 45000coremark score.The lsi046a quad core processor adopted by ok1046a-c2 has a design frequency of 1.8GHz and armcortex-a72 architecture, which makes it have unique advantages in data processing. Compared with its two brothers ok1012a-c and ok1043a-c, ok1046a-c2 has stronger data processing performance.Ok1046a-c2 development board leads to two channels of SFP , and the maximum communication rate can reach 10Gbps. SFP optical module or electrical module can be installed; In addition, it also leads to 5-way 1Gbps Ethernet, which supports 10m / 100M / 1000Mbps adaptation, including 3 channels from sgmii and 2 channels from rgmii. There are 8 SerDes channels for high-speed peripheral interfaces. The network interface has multiple configuration schemes: it can support up to five sgmiis, support 1000mbit / s, support up to three sgmiis, support 2500mbit / s and support up to one qsgmii.SFP network test:Enter the following command on ok1046a-c2 terminal:root@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac10uproot@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac10192.168.2.182root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.2.181-i5-t60For rgmii interface network test, insert the network cable into fm1-mac4 (P13 lower) port, and enter the following command for test:root@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac4uproot@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac4192.168.1.106root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.181-i5-t60Sgmii interface network test, insert the network cable into fm1-mac6 (p27 lower) port, and enter the following command to test:root@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac6uproot@localhost :#ifconfigfm1-mac6192.168.1.106root@localhost :#echoperformance>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_ governorroot@localhost :#iperf3-c192.168.1.181-i5-t60fourFinally, let's take a look at ok1028a-c. Ok1028a-c development board is designed based on nxpls1028a processor, dual core armcortex-a72, with a maximum frequency of 1.5GHz, on-board 2gbddr4ram and 8gbrom; Native supports 6 gbitethernets, supports Ethernet switches and Ethernet controllers of TSN, and supports integrated it and ot networks. High performance and high computing power: ls1028a processor, dual core cortex-a72, the main frequency is up to 1.5GHz, meeting the performance requirements of edge computing and big data processing applications.Multi network port and TSN support: the fet1028a-c core board supports 6 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces natively, supports up to 2.5Gbps, and has a built-in 4-port switch supporting TSN. Layer 2 Forwarding does not consume CPU resources. Among them, 5 road network ports can be supported through SerDes configuration. Ok1028a-c development board leads out 5-way Ethernet and supports 10 / 100 / 1000Mbps adaptation. Among them, 4 channels are led out through qsgmii and one channel is led out by sgmii. Both support TSN. It also supports 4G module and 5g module.For sgmii interface network performance test, enter the following command to test:root@forlinx :#ifconfigeno0192.168.1.200root@forlinx :#iperf3-c192.168.1.181-i1-t0Qsgmii layer 2 Forwarding test: use two network cables to connect the swp0 port and swp1 port of ok1028a-c, and use ok1028a-c for data forwarding. The network topology is tested as follows:Ok1028a-c has high-performance and high-power big data processing capability. In addition, the ls1028 processor of dual core cortex-a72 also supports 4K display output, supports a display interface, supports dp1.3 and dp1.4, and the display resolution is up to 4kp60. This is unique to ok1028a-c compared with other okxx series products.This is the end of Xiaobian's evaluation. Ok10xx series products provide you with a variety of options, which can solve your various needs for network performance. No, it can't be realized. Only unexpectedly, how can we not love such excellent performance? With Feiling's high-quality and professional technical services, it will certainly bring extraordinary experience to customers. Let's wait and see!fqj
Barr  Test
Barr Test
Barré testHe is also credited with the "Barr test", which may identify pronator drift or pyramidal drift, despite the fact that the test is firstly described by Giovanni Mingazzini. This test is performed by making the patient stretch out his hands with the palms to the top, and requesting him to close his eyes. If one hand drops involuntarily (or after tapping on the palms), the test indicates damage to the pyramidal tract. A maneuver that is sometimes used for examining the legs for latent pyramidal paresis is referred to as the "Mingazzini test" (named after Italian neurologist Giovanni Mingazzini 1859-1929).— — — — — —Oakes testThe primary test to determine if the purpose is demonstrably justifiable in a free and democratic society is known as the Oakes test, which takes its name from the essential case R v Oakes 1 S.C.R. 103 which was written by Chief Justice Dickson. The test is applied once the claimant has proven that one of the provisions of the Charter has been violated. The onus is on the Crown to pass the Oakes test. In R v Big M Drug Mart Ltd (1985), Dickson asserted that limitations on rights must be motivated by an objective of sufficient importance. Moreover, the limit must be as small as possible. In Oakes (1986), Dickson elaborated on the standard when one David Oakes was accused of selling narcotics. Dickson for a unanimous Court found that David Oakes' rights had been violated because he had been presumed guilty. This violation was not justified under the second step of the two step process: There must be a pressing and substantial objective The means must be proportional The means must be rationally connected to the objective There must be minimal impairment of rights There must be proportionality between the infringement and objectiveThe test is heavily founded in factual analysis so strict adherence is not always practiced. A degree of overlap is to be expected as there are some factors, such as vagueness, which are to be considered in multiple sections. If the legislation fails any of the above branches, it is unconstitutional. Otherwise the impugned law passes the Oakes test and remains valid. Since Oakes, the test has been modified slightly. Pressing and substantial objectiveThis step asks whether the Government's objective in limiting the Charter protected right is a pressing and substantial objective according to the values of a free and democratic society. In practice, judges have recognized many objectives as sufficient, with the exception, since Big M, of objectives which are in and of themselves discriminatory or antagonistic to fundamental freedoms, or objectives inconsistent with the proper division of powers. In Vriend v Alberta (1998), it was found that a government action may also be invalidated at this stage if there is no objective at all, but rather just an excuse. Specifically, the Supreme Court found an Alberta law unconstitutional because it extended no protection to employees terminated due to sexual orientation, contradicting section 15. The government had chosen not to protect people in this predicament because the predicament was considered rare and obscure. The Court ruled this was an insufficient objective, because it was more of an explanation than an objective. Rational connectionThis step asks whether the legislation's limitation of the Charter right have a rational connection to Parliament's objective. The means used must be carefully designed to achieve the objective. They must not be arbitrary, unfair, or based on irrational considerations. Professor Peter Hogg, who used to argue the rational connection test was redundant, continues to argue the criterion is of little use. An example of the rational connection test being failed can be found in R v Morgentaler (1988), in which Dickson was of the opinion that laws against abortion should be struck down partly because of a breach of health rights under section 7 and an irrational connection between the objective (protecting the fetus and the pregnant woman's health), and the process by which therapeutic abortions were granted. This process was considered unfair to pregnant women requiring therapeutic abortions, because committees meant to approve abortions were not formed or took too long. (The law afterwards failed the other two proportionality criteria as well). Minimal impairmentThis step had been considered the most important of the steps and is the test that is failed the most. Typically, outright bans will be difficult to prove as minimally impairing. However, the means does not necessarily have to be the absolute least intrusive; this is indeed one of the steps of the test that has been modified. In Oakes, the step was phrased to require the limit as being "as little as possible". In R v Edwards Books and Art Ltd (1986), this was changed to "as little as is reasonably possible", thus allowing for more realistic expectations for governments. The inquiry focuses on balance of alternatives. In Ford v Quebec (AG) (1988), it was found that Quebec laws requiring the exclusive use of French on signs limited free speech. While the law had a sufficient objective of protecting the French language, it was nevertheless unconstitutional because the legislature could have accepted a more benign alternative such as signs including smaller English words in addition to larger French words. (The Court decided in Ford that the same test would apply to article 9.1 of the Quebec Charter. Thus it is the reason why Quebec Charter jurisprudence can be of interest under section 1 of the Canadian Charter.) ProportionalityThis step asks whether the objective is proportional to the effect of the law. Are the measures that are responsible for limiting the Charter right proportional to the objective? Does the benefit to be derived from the legislation outweigh the seriousness of the infringement? The legislation may not produce effects of such severity so as to make the impairment unjustifiable. Professor Hogg has argued that merely satisfying the first three criteria of the Oakes test probably amounts to automatic satisfaction of the fourth criterion.
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