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Architecture and history of Courtyard

Two examples of this flourishing architecture are to be highlighted. Both are limestone vernacular-based, as this stone is the most used across the islands.

GirenIn the 5th millennium BC, neolithic farmers from Sicily brought a hut-building tradition with Asian origins. In the years 3800BC, this transformed into a spectacular type of architecture. As in Stonehenge, megalithic constructions were sacred. According to Anthony Bonanno, they had medical or cosmic significance for the people. It is the next evolution of those huge rocks constructions that gave the giren we can find nowadays though Malta and Gozo.

The giren (singular: girna) were little constructions made for the mere needs of farmers and herdsmen. It has a double wall made of raw stone in order to protect the owner from hot summers, and its ceiling is usually dome-shaped. Though, we can find some square, rectangular or oval-shaped roofs (see Michel Rouvires schemes).

The most beautiful and the largest circular giren are to be found in the stretch of fields and rocky ground between the Red Tower and Cirkewwa, while the largest square ones are to be found at Ix-Xaghra Il-Hamra, in the limits of Manikata.

Cubic architectureJust as the previous giren type of construction, the cubic Maltese buildings find their roots in the islands history and tradition. Back between 800BC and AD 1200, Maltese islands were clearly part of the North African block, in opposition with what is stated nowadays with the European Union (2004). The Punic culture, which was settled since the control of Carthage in 400BC, has never been abandoned through Roman occupation (between 218 B.C. and A.D. 455 ) and found its way until the 9th century with the Aghlabid Muslims of Tunisia who will remain in Malta archipelago during three centuries. At this state, the architecture was still humble. It is the European wars that begun in the 15th century that will change the shape of the buildings according to their taste, imprinted with the Renaissance and Baroque styles.

This is under those influences the primitive razzett - or farmhouse - began to take the shape we know nowadays and make them so famous among visitors and tourists.

In Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, Ben Farmer, Dr Hentie J. Louw, Hentie Louw and Adrian Napper linked the shapes of farmhouses of Malta and Gozo with cultural habits and needs from this period:

In about 1600, the introduction of the practice of living in closed settlements for security reasons in medieval Malta led to a reinterpretation of the basic cubic farmhouse layout. Community living, as opposed to extend family living, linked with the typically medieval Mediterranean tradition of walking to ones fields in the early morning and returning to the security of the village at sunset, let to the establishment of a typical village pattern of two distinct types. The earlier type consisted of a closely knit web of winding streets and alleys radiating from a central square, echoing the introverted central courtyard of the farmhouse building; the later type, most popular on Maltas sister island of Gozo, consisted of a sprawling pattern based on open-ended streets and alleys leading into the countryside, offering less security and introversion but infinitely more visual rapport with the terraced fields around the settlement.

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London townhouses of Courtyard

From 1747, Brettingham operated from London as well as Norwich. This period marks a turning point in his career, as he was now no longer designing country houses and farm buildings just for the local aristocrats and the Norfolk gentry, but for the greater aristocracy based in London.

One of Brettingham's greatest solo commissions came when he was asked to design a town house for the 9th Duke of Norfolk in St. James's Square, London. Completed in 1756, the exterior of this mansion was similar to those of many of the great palazzi in Italian cities: bland and featureless, the piano nobile distinguishable only by its tall pedimented windows. This arrangement, devoid of pilasters and a pediment giving prominence to the central bays at roof height, was initially too severe for the English taste, even by the fashionable Palladian standards of the day. Early critics declared the design "insipid".

However, the interior design of Norfolk House was to define the London town house for the next century. The floor plan was based on an adaptation of one of the secondary wings he had built at Holkham Hall. A circuit of reception rooms centred on a grand staircase, with the staircase hall replacing the Italian traditional inner courtyard or two-storey hall. This arrangement of salons allowed guests at large parties to circulate, having been received at the head of the staircase, without doubling back on arriving guests. The second advantage was that while each room had access to the next, it also had access to the central stairs, thus allowing only one or two rooms to be used at a time for smaller functions. Previously, guests in London houses had had to reach the principal salon through a long enfilade of minor reception rooms. In this square and compact way, Brettingham came close to recreating the layout of an original Palladian Villa. He transformed what Andrea Palladio had conceived as a country retreat into a London mansion appropriate for the lifestyle of the British aristocracy, with its reversal of the usual Italian domestic pattern of a large palazzo in town, and a smaller villa in the country. As happened so often in Brettingham's career, Robert Adam later developed this design concept further, and was credited with its success. However, Brettingham's plan for Norfolk House was to serve as the prototype for many London mansions over the next few decades.

Brettingham's additional work in London included two more houses in St. James's Square: No. 5 for the 2nd Earl of Strafford and No. 13 for the 1st Lord Ravensworth. Lord Egremont, for whom Brettingham was working in the country at Petworth, gave Brettingham another opportunity to design a grandiose London mansionthe Egremont family's town house. Begun in 1759, this Palladian palace, known at the time as Egremont House, or more modestly as 94 Piccadilly, is one of the few great London town houses still standing. It later came to be known as Cambridge House and was the home of Lord Palmerston, and then of the Naval & Military Club; as of October 2007, it is in the process of conversion into a luxury hotel.

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Offshoots of Courtyard

BobovRabbi Chaim Halberstam (17931876) of Sanz

Rabbi Mayer Noson Halberstam (18271855), son of Rabbi Chaim of Sanz

Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam (18471905), first Bobover Rebbe, author of Ateres Shlomo, son of Rabbi Mayer Noson

Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam (18741941), second Bobover Rebbe, author of Kedushas Tzion, son of Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam

Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam (19072000), third Bobover Rebbe, son of Rabbi Ben Zion

Rabbi Naftali Tzvi Halberstam (19312005) fourth Bobover Rebbe, son of Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam

Rabbi Ben Zion Aryeh Leibish Halberstam (born 1955), present Bobover Rebbe, son of Rabbi Shlomo (II)

Rabbi Mordechai Dovid Unger (born 1954) present Bobov-45 Rebbe, son-in-law of Rabbi Naftali TzviSanz-GribovRabbi Chaim Halberstam of Sanz

Rabbi Aaron Halberstam (18261903), Sanzer Rav; son of Rabbi Chaim

Rabbi Arye Leibish Halberstam (18521935), Sanzer Rav; son of Rabbi Aaron

Rabbi Mordechai Zev Halberstam (18821942), Sanzer Rav; son of Rabbi Aryeh Leibish

Rabbi Boruch Halberstam (19031942), Gribover Rav; son of Rabbi Mordechai Zev

Rabbi Naftali Halberstam, Sanz-Gribover Rebbe in Boro Park, son of Rabbi BoruchThe following dynasties stem from Rabbi Boruch Halberstam, the Gorlitser Rov:Sanz-GorlitzGrand Rabbi Chaim Halberstam of Sanz

Grand Rabbi Boruch Halberstam of Gorlitz, son of Rabbi Chaim of Sanz

Grand Rabbi Elisha Halberstam (18601941) died in Siberia

Grand Rabbi Boruch Halberstam (died 1982) of Gorlitz-Bnei Brak, son-in-law of Rabbi Yisochor Shlomo Teichtal of Pishtian, author of Eim Habonim S'meichoSanz-KlausenburgGrand Rabbi Chaim Halberstam (17931876) of Sanz.

Grand Rabbi Baruch Halberstam (18291906) of Gorlitz, son of Rabbi Chaim of Sanz

Grand Rabbi Tzvi Hirsh Halberstam (18511918), of Ridnik, son of Rabbi Baruch

Grand Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam (19041994), the First Sanz Klausenberger Rebbe, son of Rabbi Tzvi

Grand Rabbi Zvi Elimelech Halberstam, present Sanzer Rebbe in Kiryat Sanz, Netanya, Israel, son of Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah

Grand Rabbi Shmuel Dovid Halberstam, present Sanz-Klausenberger Rebbe in Brooklyn, New York, USA, son of Rabbi Yekusiel YehudahSanz-ZhmigrodGrand Rabbi Chaim Halberstam of Sanz

Grand Rabbi Baruch Halberstam of Gorlitz, son of Rabbi Chaim of Sanz

Grand Rabbi Sinai Halberstam (18701941), the first Zhmigroder Rebbe, a son of Rabbi Boruch of Gorlitz; died in the Omsk forest, Siberia.

Grand Rabbi Yaakov Halberstam (19021967), the Tshakover Rebbe, son-in-law of the Shotzer Rebbe

Grand Rabbi Meir Halberstam, Tshakover Rebbe of Bnei Brak

Grand Rabbi Naftali Halberstam, Tshakover Rebbe of Jerusalem

Rabbi Moshe Halberstam, (1932 2006) Rosh Yeshiva of Tshakove in Jerusalem, halachic authority and member of the Edah HaChareidis.

Rabbi Chacham Tzvi Halberstam (19371972), author of Toldot ha-Maggid mi-Kozhnits.

Rabbi Sinai Halberstam, rabbi of the Shikkun Gimel district of Bnei Brak

Grand Rabbi Naftali Elimelech Halberstam, Leipniker Rebbe of Bnei Brak

Grand Rabbi Aryeh Leibish Halberstam (19097 January 2007), the second Zhmigroder Rebbe, son-in-law of the Stretiner Rebbe, Grand Rabbi Yehuda Tsvi Brandwein. Author of Arye Sho'ag, died in Netanya. In his youth he studied under the Tshebiner Rov and Rabbi Meir Shapiro. During World War II had to leave Zhmigrid for Krakw, then Lviv and eventually Siberia. He served as a rebbe in Petah Tikva, where he found the Divrei Chaim Synagogue, Yafo and Bnei Brak. For a short period in 1950 he lived in Antwerp.

Grand Rabbi Sinai Halberstam, Sanz-Zhmigroder Rebbe of Borough Park (50th Street), son of Rabbi Aryeh Leibish

Grand Rabbi Yehosua Halberstam, Zhmigroder Rebbe of Antwerp, son of Rabbi Aryeh Leibish

Grand Rabbi Chaim Halberstam, Zhmigroder Rebbe of Bnei Brak, son of Rabbi Aryeh Leibish

Grand Rabbi Yisrael Halberstam, Zhmigroder Rebbe of America

Grand Rabbi Sinai Halberstam, Zhmigroder Rebbe of Borough Park (43rd Street), son of Rabbi Yisrael

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Introduction to Courtyard - Docibilis II of Gaeta of Courtyard
Docibilis II of Gaeta of CourtyardDocibilis II (Italian: Docibile) (c. 880 c. 954) was the ruler of Gaeta, in one capacity or another, from 906 until his death. He was the son of the hypatus John I, who made him co-ruler in 906 or thereabouts.Docibilis took part in the Battle of Garigliano in 915. In 930, he began adding the title of duke, or dux, to his title of hypatus, or ypatus. This was meant to signify a new status or rank, though the Byzantine Empire, to which he was always legally a vassal, always recognised him merely as archon, . His father died in 933 or 934, and he subsequently became sole ruler. At that juncture, he began asserting his independence from the Byzantines. He abandoned the imperial dating by which charters were dated by the year of the emperor's reign and allied with Theobald I of Spoleto against the Greeks.Likewise, his wife Orania took the title of duchess, ducissa, alongside ypatissa, and he associated his son, John II, with him in the dukedom. In 939 he removed the style hypatus and began calling himself consul. He married his daughter Maria to the prince of Capua, to strengthen his ties to the rest of the local Italian nobility. Atenulf Megalu, the gastald of Aquino, fled to Docibilis' protection, but none of this bettered his relations with the Lombard princes: he was attacked by Landulf I of Benevento and lost some territory. Later on, he even imprisoned the abbot of Monte Cassino and was not above allying with the Saracens against which he had once fought. He was succeeded by his son John and later Gregory, and he gave Fondi to his son Marinus, with the title of dux, effectively splitting the duchy of Gaeta in two parts. His other son Leo received the Church of San Erasmo at Formia from John II and Docibilis left many daughters besides Maria: Anna, Gemma, Drosu, and Megalu.He died after 954 and before 957. In his last will (954) his palace in Gaeta, now in ruins, was described as having "rooms, corridors, baths, aviaries, kitchens and courtyards down to the sea."------Cultural landscape of CourtyardMostly the people of this village were Jatt Sikh mixed with Hindu and only one Muslim Family belonging to Kumhar (Ghumar) was remained in the village a. Other people also used to live like permanent part of the village like Luhar (Blacksmith), Tarkhan, Jhior, Chimba (Weaver), Darji (Tailor), Chamar (Ramdasia) and Majhbi. A Tribal group of Chajjgarhe' living in Jhugies (huts) also living and following Muslim religion. Some of them used to carry on the work called Nakal (Naklan) and singing as their part-time profession to entertain the people on occasions of Marriages and other festivals in the other village and in Halwara village itself. There were seven Maseet or maszid (Mosques) and three Takia (Smoking place) where the Muslim people used to smoke Hukka and gossip in the village. One mosque in the centre of the village was for women. Out of seven mosques 6 are still standing and one mosque is untraceable. Takia place was occupied by a Sikh family named Dalip Singh also known as Daulatpuria but now the same is demolished and a new house is constructed.Majority of the population was Muslim (Manjh Rajpoot. Muslim women were not allowed to move out of the house ( Parda-nashi). No women was married outside the village but women from outside village were accepted for marriage (nikah). People were converted Muslim from Hindu's during the regime of Badshah Aurangjeb. They were called Manjh Rajput. Though they accepted Muslim religion but they never forget their Hindu's rituals. At the time of marriage (Nikah), it was compulsory to perform 'Phere' also. Otherwise marriage ceremony was not consider completed. Beef for them was sin and they never sacrificed cow on any occasions. They used to celebrate marriage functions 10 to 15 days. They were fond of music, Kawwali and Gazelles were continuously recited for many days during marriage ceremony.The place is a remarkable example of cultural harmony and intermingling. A large number of people from other states belonging to families of Air Force men and women have settled here. The area has are Sikh Gurudwaras, a Hindu temple, a Christian church, and the tomb of a Muslim peer, all of which are equally revered by the residents.------Significance of CourtyardThe site is considered to be the most sacred place in Lahore. The shrine has emerged a major economic, political, and social centre in Lahore, and is one of the only places in Lahore where the extremely rich and extremely poor share space together.It is widely believed among devotees that the saint interred at the shrine is the supreme authority over all Sufi saints in the Indian subcontinent, and that no new Sufi saint could immigrate to the subcontinent without obtaining permission from the spirit of Hujwiri.Following the establishment of a shrine dedicated to Hujwiri, his tomb was visited by Muslims and non-Muslims in search of his blessings. Illustrious figures such as Baba Farid, Moinuddin Chishti, Nizamuddin Auliya, Dara Shikoh, and Allama Iqbal all paid obeisance to the shrine, and pledged allegiance to Hujwiri. Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was a frequent visitor to the shrine.Hujwiri's teachings were critical of practices associated with South Asian Islam, such as the use of drugs, and dancing. He also taught that Sufi saints were themselves still obliged to the demands of Islam, and so is revered by reformist Muslims who are critical of Sufi practice, as well as traditionalist Muslims who revere Sufi shrines.Qawwali performances are regularly held at the shrine. On special occasions, the shrine is decorated with lights, dinner is prepared for thousands of visitors, who also partake in dance while musicians play Sufi music for hours. At the boundary of the shrine, Muslim faithfuls recite the Qur'an, and pay tributes to the Prophet Muhammad.Social servicesThe shrine provides a wide array of social services which have made it a popular hub for impoverished residents. In a custom that is 1,000 years old, hundreds of visitors per day are offered free food at the shrine. Patrons facing personal difficulties frequently donate money or labour to the shrine's free-kitchen fund, in line with Islam's emphasis on feeding the poor. The shrine also provides for students' education in nearby schools, and helps fund local hospitals as part of its social mission.------Feature of CourtyardEmo the Musical premiered on 12 August 2016 at the Melbourne International Film Festival. It was also selected to screen at the Berlin International Film Festival (Berlinale) in February 2017. The film was released in Australian cinemas 4 May 2017. The film was screened in Tel Aviv Cinematheque on 30 August 2017 as part of TLVFest monthly program.Filming of the feature took place in the Melbourne metropolitan area throughout December 2015 and January 2016 and funding for the film was provided by a successful crowdfunding campaign, Screen Australia, Film Victoria, and the MIFF Premiere Fund.PlotEthan is an Emo who has just been expelled from his private-school after attempting suicide in the courtyard. On his first day at his new school the dilapidated Seymour High - he meets Trinity, a beautiful (but totally naive) Catholic girl who is desperate to convert him to Jesus. But joining the Catholic Christians is the last thing on Ethan's mind. What he really wants is to join the school alternative rock band, Worst Day Ever and to be part of the Emo clique, led by the enigmatic and dangerous Bradley. After a successful audition, Ethan is welcomed into the Emo world and embraces his image complete with black eyeliner and a violently possessive girlfriend, Roz. But Ethan can't stop thinking about Trinity, who is herself stuck in a restrictive world of dogma and denial. With the upcoming rock competition bringing tensions in the school at an all-time high, and with the burgeoning turf war between the Christians and the Emos set to explode at any moment, Ethan is torn between factions and forced to confront the harebrained actions of his friends and question who he has become.CastBenson Jack Anthony as EthanJordan Hare as TrinityRahart Adams as Bradley, leader of the Emo cliqueJon Prasida as Isaac, leader of the Christian cliqueLucy Barrett as RozCraig Hyde-Smith as PeterBen Bennett as JayGeraldine Viswanathan as JamaliKevin Clayette as JoshBridie Carter as Mrs DoyleNatasha Herbert as SusanDylan Lewis as Doug SkeletonAdam Zwar as Principal StephensHeidi Arena as Sister Kathleen------Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne of CourtyardThe Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy. The palace was designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi in 1532-1536 on a site of three contiguous palaces owned by the old Roman Massimo family and built after arson destroyed the earlier structures during the Sack of Rome (1527). In addition the curved facade was dictated by foundations built upon the stands for the stadium (odeon) of the emperor Domitian. It fronts the now-busy Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a few hundred yards from the front of the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle.The entrance is characterized by a central portico with six Doric columns, paired and single. Inside there are two courtyards, of which the first one has a portico with Doric columns as a basement for a rich loggia, which is also made of Doric columns. The column decorations gave the name to the palace, alle Colonne. The facade is renowned as one of the most masterful of its time, combining both elegance with stern rustication. The recessed entrance portico differs from typical palazzo models such as exemplified by the Florentine Palazzo Medici. In addition, there is a variation of size of windows for different levels, and the decorative frames of the windows of the third floor. Unlike the Palazzo Medici, there is no academic adherence to superimposition of orders, depending on the floor. On the opposite facade of this palace, opening onto the Piazzetta dei Massimo, the palace connects with the frescoed facade of the conjoined annex, the Palazzetto Massimi (or Palazzetto Istoriato). For many centuries, this used to be the central post office of Rome, a Massimo family perquisite. To the left of the palace is the Palazzo di Pirro, built by a pupil of Antonio da Sangallo.The interior ceilings and vestibules are elaborately ornamented with rosettes and coffered roofs. The entrance ceiling is decorated with a fresco by Daniele da Volterra, who represented scenes from the Life of Fabio Massimo, the supposed Roman founder of the Massimo family.The chapel on the second floor was a room where the 14-year-old Paolo Massimo, son of Fabrizio Massimo, was recalled briefly to life by Saint Philip Neri on March 16, 1583. The interior of the palace is open to the public annually only on that day. Other notable events in the palace of the 16th century including various intrafamilial murders.
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