Implementation of 3G Wireless Road Test Optimization System in Data Service

1 Introduction

With the operation of 3G network and the popularity of data services, users' experience of data services has become a key element of operators' competition. At present, wireless road test has become a conventional means for operators to optimize and evaluate the network. Using wireless road test to optimize data services can easily and effectively eliminate business blind spots and improve the network service level. Especially for a 3G network that provides high-quality voice services, through optimization case analysis and communication, it can help solve most of the optimization needs of data services.

2 optimize the user experience of data services

After Chinese telecom operators obtained the third generation mobile communication license in early 2009, after more than a year of network construction, transformation and reorganization, major operators have basically defined their network market positioning and business strategy, and the competition of mobile communication has also entered an era of comprehensive competition in service and business capability from the price war.

For operators, although the revenue of voice service is irreplaceable, data service has become the core strategy of operators in terms of operating revenue, user loyalty and new user attraction. 3G network means higher data rate and more powerful service platform. Based on 3G network, video services and Internet services have been rapidly improved, which not only attracts users, but also makes the data flow of the network rise exponentially.

According to the experience of foreign 3G operators, within one or two years after the 3G network is put into large-scale operation, with the introduction and wide use of business applications, the amount of data services will develop by leaps and bounds. At the initial stage, the bandwidth and capacity constraints that are not obvious due to low utilization will become increasingly prominent and become the bottleneck of business development. At the initial stage, the customer's better experience will also deteriorate, which is reflected in the decline of network speed, longer delay, and even inability to access, dropping lines, etc. This restricts the sustainable development of new business. At this stage, European and American operators generally suffer from the rapid rise of customer complaints against data services, which seriously affects customer adhesion and even has a negative impact on operator brands.

The traditional concept holds that the requirements of data service for wireless link are no different from that of voice service. As long as there is good coverage and network optimization for voice services, data services can naturally meet the expected indicators of design and planning. Another idea is that data services involve a wider range of network levels and interfaces, and wireless links are only a small part of them. Users experience end-to-end service quality, which requires full multi-level optimization. Mobile network optimization should be extended to the network layer, packet domain core network, even business application and server level, so as to effectively locate faults, Address end-to-end user experience. The optimization work needs to adopt special instruments at each network interface, integrate the whole process test records, and complete network analysis and optimization. In fact, the traditional road test method is the only one that can truly reflect the user experience. The experience of foreign operators has proved that the current road test method can complete the optimization of most non voice services. Especially in the early stage of data service scale opening, targeted wireless network optimization for packet domain data service can effectively solve most problems and effectively improve user experience.

Chinese mobile operators attach great importance to network voice services. The increasing improvement of network construction and regular inspection system ensure the universal experience of users. On this basis, carrying out targeted optimization of data services (such as throughput optimization) will not only improve users' satisfaction with data services with half the effort, but also improve the revenue of data services, gather more service providers and launch new services.

3. No line test and Optimization for data service

3.1 common test methods and processes

For the growing user data service requirements, such as FTP download based on HSDPA / HSUPA, network optimization must be more targeted. Taking the low data throughput as an example, combined with anitenemo's wireless test software, this paper makes a case analysis and introduces the general solution.

(1) Front desk test. In order to collect wireless parameters, combined with digital map and base station database, wireless information can be displayed and played back in real time.

(2) Background analysis. Statistics are made for the collected log files, and targeted optimization is made for specific parameter KPIs. According to the analysis results obtained by the road test software, the optimization toolkit of anite Nemo's background analysis tool will provide optimization suggestions and adjust the network parameters to achieve the purpose of optimization.

Test the front and rear software based on anitenemo, cooperate with FTP test server and FTP download software. During the road test, record the data throughput, analyze the sampling section where the index deteriorates, and determine the optimization measures.

3.2 case 1: wireless link quality problem (Figure 1)

Figure 1 Summary of low throughput events and phenomena filtered by Nemo software

(1) When it is found that the data rate drops abnormally, the road test data analysis needs to distinguish the situations

● fault discovery: compared with the FTP server rate, the average uplink or downlink rate of radioaccessbearer is much lower, or it is inconsistent with the current wireless network and core network settings, terminal capacity and current traffic.

● fault phenomenon: during the road test, the data rate is relatively high for a period of time, and then suddenly drops below the target rate; Roundtriptime is very long and there are many packet losses.

● analysis: the average CQI index is low and the mac-hs3rdretransmission rate is high. It can be preliminarily confirmed that there is a problem with coverage or strong interference.

(2) Solution: improve wireless link quality

Through Nemo road test software, observe the coverage (see Fig. 2) and interference (see Fig. 3) of the data collected from the foreground, determine the fault cause through synchronous comparison of multiple parameters in the background software, and it is recommended to modify network related parameters to achieve the goal of improving wireless link quality.

Figure 2 Analysis of wireless environment in event area

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of interference analysis in low throughput section

As shown in the screenshot of NEMO software (see Figure 1), the deterioration of wireless link quality will lead to the increase of packet loss. In order to recover the lost packets, the RLC layer needs to retransmit the packets with problems. Therefore, too many retransmissions will lead to longer RTT and lower data rate.

The link quality deteriorates, which may be the poor coverage signal or the interference of pilot pollution. Experienced engineers can draw conclusions according to figure 2 and figure 3 and implement optimization measures to improve the wireless environment. However, improving network coverage often involves increasing base stations and carriers, which requires investment and long engineering cycle. According to the optimization experience, this paper provides suggestions on parameter optimization, which can improve the cell throughput.

(3) Optimization measure 1

Considering that for a user, the wireless environment is constantly changing with the movement of the user, the down switch caused by the coverage problem should be minimized, that is, the data traffic should be migrated from HSPA to WCDMA (R99). The specific measures are to set the reporting cycle of Sir error measurement to 0; Sir error measurement is prohibited; At the same time, inter carrier switching is also prohibited to save system resources.

(4) Optimization measures 2

As in measure 1, data services are often migrated to WCDMA bearer, which will not improve throughput. Therefore, the wireless parameters can be optimized to reduce the down switch caused by cell update (see Table 1).

Table 1 IUR parameters

3.3 case 2: reasonably allocate the business volume of WCDMA and HSPA

At present, there are two kinds of 3G terminals in the market, one supports HSPA and the other does not support HSPA (R99). The latter can only reside on the WCDMA link, while the former can migrate between R99 and HSPA bearer according to throughput, that is, the data service of HSPA terminal can be carried on the WCDMA link or HSPDA link. If a large number of services reside on WCDMA, the power allocated to HSDPA will be limited, thus reducing the total cell throughput. In the sector where the second carrier of HSDPA is opened, the terminal traffic of HSPA should be placed on the second carrier of HSPA as far as possible, so as to reduce the load of WCDMA and the interference in the system caused by HSPA.

(1) Phenomenon

In low throughput events, the wireless link factor can be excluded. The road test (batrana detection) or RNC real-time detection finds that R99 data traffic is full. The PS service diagnosed as excessive R99 reduces HSDPA throughput.

(2) Solution

● give HSDPA higher weight than R99 business.

● service weight can be set for R99 and HSPA for different releases

● interactive THP1, thp2, thp3 and background can be set for different traffic classes

● limit ptxtargetpsmax and reserve more power for HSDPA.

Set the maximum allowed HSDPA power to be the same as Max cell DL power capability, which allows HSDPA to occupy all the power remaining after common channel and rel99 traffic are occupied in the system. Check whether all 15 codewords are activated. Check Max throughput license

The network optimization experience shows that the average throughput of the problem cell can be improved by more than 40% by reasonably configuring the service weight. Give full play to the potential of equipment and strive for valuable time for network expansion.

3.4 case 3: insufficient system capacity configuration

(1) Phenomenon

As shown in Figure 4, it can be seen in the NEMO software window that the wireless signal level does not deteriorate significantly. At this time, the low occupancy rate of HS-SCCH indicates that there are problems in power capacity, server or transmission; When analyzing data, several relevant parameters must be combined for meaningful analysis. Typical parameter setting errors include: the TCP / IP window is too small, the MTU window is too small, the server is congested, and the upload and download bandwidth of the server is reversed.

Figure 4 low data throughput caused by non wireless link

(2) Solution

● check the service load of the network. If the data throughput is limited due to the load, consider increasing the carrier.

● check the transmission of the service cell. There may be a setting error or insufficient transmission capacity.

● adopt FTP software downloaded by multi thread. Try using another FTP server for comparison.

3.5 parameter analysis

The occupancy rate of control fach is high. You can check the parameters "RRC state" and "packet technology" in anite Nemo software during the road test

Solution: set lower "low utilization" threshold, longer trigger time and larger measurement window size (see Figure 5).

Figure 5 reasonable setting of network parameters

The above lists several common parameter adjustment schemes to optimize throughput. In practice, through the data optimization training for engineers, combined with the use of road test optimization system, it can greatly reduce customer complaints, improve the service level of the overall data business, and provide a reliable basis for network planning and tolerance.

4 Conclusion

Wireless road test is an effective mobile network optimization method widely used in parallel. It can truly reflect the experience of end users. With the introduction of 3G network and the popularization of non voice services, no line test is also applied to the optimization of data services. The application of the existing road test system and test data can locate the fault point of the data service and suggest relevant parameter adjustment and optimization measures, which can quickly improve the data service indicators of the network, and play a guarantee role in improving the user experience and launching new services. With the further deepening of network optimization, the whole network can be realized by integrating the data collected by various technical means (such as road test, interface detection, network log data, etc.)

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If the Abs Doesnt Work Does That Mean the Traction Control Doesnt Either ?
If the Abs Doesnt Work Does That Mean the Traction Control Doesnt Either ?
YEPPER! They both rely on working ABS SPEED sensors inthe WHEELS! ONE thing most people forget is to have the BRAEK FLDUI flushed and FILLED every 2-3years or when the fluid turns BROWN! DOMESTIC car makers never tell you this, but it is STILL a necessary part of AUTO care. Use ONLY the genuine AC DELCO fluids from a SEALED CONTAINER! WHY, you ask??? because all brake fluid is HYGROSCOPIC1. How can I decrease friction and add traction to my mousetrap car?Good Mouse Trap Car Designs2. are 2WD trucks really bad in inclimate weather, snow, rain etc?No problem.Go for it.You can always put weight in the bed to aid in traction if needed3. How effect auto and manual gear system to differential separately.?Manually controlled automatic transmissions Most automatic transmissions offer the driver a certain amount of manual control over the transmission's shifts (beyond the obvious selection of forward, reverse, or neutral). Those controls take several forms: Throttle kickdown Most automatic transmissions include some means of forcing a downshift into the lowest possible gear ratio if the throttle pedal is fully depressed. In many older designs, kickdown is accomplished by mechanically actuating a valve inside the transmission. Most modern designs use a solenoid-operated valve that is triggered by a switch on the throttle linkage or by the engine control unit (ECU) in response to an abrupt increase in engine power. Mode selection Allows the driver to choose between preset shifting programs. For example, Economy mode saves fuel by upshifting at lower engine speeds, while Sport mode (aka "Power" or "Performance") delays upshifting for maximum acceleration. Some transmission units also have Winter mode, where higher gear ratios are chosen to keep revs as low as possible while on slippery surfaces. The modes also change how the computer responds to throttle input. Low gear ranges Conventionally, automatic transmissions have selector positions that allow the driver to limit the maximum ratio that the transmission may engage. On older transmissions, this was accomplished by a mechanical lockout in the transmission valve body preventing an upshift until the lockout was disengaged; on computer-controlled transmissions, the same effect is accomplished by firmware. The transmission can still upshift and downshift automatically between the remaining ratios: for example, in the 3 range, a transmission could shift from first to second to third, but not into fourth or higher ratios. Some transmissions will still upshift automatically into the higher ratio if the engine reaches its maximum permissible speed in the selected range. Manual controls Some transmissions have a mode in which the driver has full control of ratio changes (either by moving the selector, or through the use of buttons or paddles), completely overriding the automated function of the hydraulic controller. Such control is particularly useful in cornering, to avoid unwanted upshifts or downshifts that could compromise the vehicle's balance or traction. "Manumatic" shifters, first popularized by Porsche in the 1990s under the trade name Tiptronic, have become a popular option on sports cars and other performance vehicles. With the near-universal prevalence of electronically controlled transmissions, they are comparatively simple and inexpensive, requiring only software changes, and the provision of the actual manual controls for the driver. The amount of true manual control provided is highly variable: some systems will override the driver's selections under certain conditions, generally in the interest of preventing engine damage. Since these gearboxes also have a throttle kickdown switch, it is impossible to fully exploit the engine power at low to medium engine speeds,4. Where do I put a traction pad on a 6' 5" twin fin Fish Surfboard?john f and johnny have very accurate answers5. Anti lock and traction control light comes on at 60 pmh?If all your tires are the same size and are all worn about the same amount, you probably have an intermittant wheel speed sensor problem. Get the system scanned there will be a code stored even if the light is out and it will tell you which sensor has the problem. I will bet on the right rear sensor. You can ohm test the sensors, they should all read the same amount.
MediaTek Helio X30 Specification Leakage, Transmission and Production TSMC 10 Nm
MediaTek Helio X30 Specification Leakage, Transmission and Production TSMC 10 Nm
MediaTek's "Helio X20" system single chip is the world's first deca core central processing unit (CPU), and then launched a slightly faster Helio X25, which will be built in "Meizu Pro 6" and "LETV le2" smartphones in the future. Now, according to the latest news, MediaTek plans to start building a "Helio x30" using TSMC's 10 nm process technology, and the latest specifications flow out.On the 30th, phone arena and gsmarena quoted China's MTK mobile network as saying that people familiar with the matter disclosed that x30 will further tap the potential of three clusters and ten cores. It is confirmed that it will not only apply the 10 nm process, but also adopt the TSMC 10 nm FinFET process. It is estimated that the "tape out" will be successful as soon as June, and it is expected to achieve mass production by the end of the year.Although Helio x30 is still the "three clusters and ten cores" design proposed by MediaTek, it has been greatly improved in terms of processor core and main frequency. X30 will be composed of ten cores, including two a7x 2.8GhZ, four A53 2.2GHz and four A35 2GHz. Among them, two a7x cores are not accurately named for the time being. It is the latest product of arm, code named "Artemis", It will not be officially released until the middle of the year at the earliest. Compared with A72, Artemis has at least 20% performance improvement and reduced power consumption.The A35 has excellent power-saving efficiency and 40% faster computing speed than the previous cortex-a7 core. In addition, Artemis is the next generation core produced by arm after cortex-a72, which should compete with Qualcomm's kryo solution. Using TSMC's 10 nm process means that the power saving efficiency will be 100% higher than that of Helio X20.Not only the process and the core / main frequency are greatly upgraded, the network part of Helio x30 is also significantly strengthened. The x30 will return to the embrace of img, integrate powervr 7-series MP4 GPU, support up to 26 million graphic lenses, dual cameras and VR technology. The network will support all Netcom and support cat.13 standard (previously transferred to cat.10).However, the above news is only a rumor, and we'd better have reservations about it.
Car Parking Light Bulb Question?
Car Parking Light Bulb Question?
extremely tough step. seek on to yahoo or google. that will may help!1. Who invented the light bulb?Humphrey Davey was actually the inventor2. How Long Should Headlights Last? | Blog | PowerBulbs UKIf you are trying to guess how long your headlights should last, you will first need to consider the type of bulbs in your headlights. There are three common bulb types on the market today-halogen, HID, and LED bulbs. Each has their benefits, but we will focus on longevity for now. Out of all three types of bulb, halogens rank the worst in terms of longevity. Estimates for the lifespan of a halogen bulb range from 500 to 1,000 hours, depending on the exact bulb used. You can choose maximum performance bulbs, which will give you brighter light but a shorter lifespan. More budget-conscious or eco-friendly drivers might opt for an eco or long life bulb. Halogen bulbs in this category last two or three times longer than standard bulbs, though you may notice they are not quite as bright. Next up are HID bulbs. These bulbs last much longer than halogen bulbs, but still fall short of the impressive longevity offered by LED bulb. An HID bulb should last anywhere from 2,000 to 3,000 hours. That's up to six times longer than the shortest-lived halogen bulbs. With an HID bulb, you should get several years' worth of use before the bulb needs to be replaced. Of course, this will depend on your driving habits. Finally, LED bulbs last the longest of all three headlight bulb types we've discussed. LED bulbs can last as long as 30,000 hours. That's enough to make it through the entire lifespan of many vehicles, meaning you may never have to replace LED bulbs. However, not all LED headlight bulbs are street legal, so be sure to check before installing LED headlights. Getting the most life out of your headlight bulbs If you are interested in squeezing every last hour out of your headlight bulbs, there are a few steps you can take to ensure your bulbs wo not need to be replaced anytime soon. For one, consider upgrading your headlights. As we said before, HID bulbs last much longer than halogen bulbs. If your vehicle currently uses halogen headlight bulbs, you can purchase an HID conversion kit. This will allow you to use HID bulbs instead, and you will find yourself changing out your bulbs much less often. HID bulbs have many other advantages. They give off a brighter light and have a higher colour temperature, which many drivers prefer. If upgrading your entire headlight does not sound appealing or is not in the budget right now, there are steps you can take to get the most life out of your halogen bulbs. The most obvious, of course, is to use your headlights less frequently. You only need your headlights at night or during inclement weather. On sunny days, turn your headlights off to help them last longer. Switching to an eco or long-life halogen bulb can also improve longevity. As we mentioned earlier, these specially-designed bulbs can last anywhere from two to six times longer than standard halogen bulbs. It's also important to consider how much longevity really matters to you. Some drivers hate the idea of going to the mechanic to have their bulbs changed. But changing out your headlight bulbs should be a simple process that you can do at home in just a few minutes. Another concern for many drivers is the cost of buying new headlight bulbs. Keep in mind that while HID or LED bulbs last longer, they cost more upfront. Halogen bulbs, on the other hand, are relatively inexpensive, so changing them more frequently should not cost a fortune.3. Whats the better light bulb?If you can make the down payment on $50 a bulb, LED's have none of the problems of cfl's, use less energy (about half that of cfl's) and last something like 40 or 50 times as long as normal bulbs and about 8 times longer than cfl's. I think they are fantastic. over their lifetime they are even cheaper than cfl's4. What is a vapor light bulb?Any light bulb that uses electric flowing through a vapor to make light. This includes florescent, high and low pressure Sodium, Mercury vapor, metal halide, neon...
Dear Chefs: Should I Use Extra Virgin Olive Oil with My Gourmet Pasta Or Regular Olive Oil?
Dear Chefs: Should I Use Extra Virgin Olive Oil with My Gourmet Pasta Or Regular Olive Oil?
dear chefs: should i use extra virgin olive oil with my gourmet pasta or regular olive oil?who doesnt love a virgin huh huh ??? wink wink lol lol— — — — — —Can you substitute extra virgin olive oil for vegetable oil in a recipe?yes, although the olive oil would taste alot better and it better for your health, but oil is oil and you can almost always replace the type with another— — — — — —Any tips on how to control eczema?When I was your age, I had eczema on my hands and feet - do not need to tell you how horrible it was - my hands were like raw meat for 5 long years. saw the doctors and was told the same as you - this will never go away, all you can do is control it. I started doing my own research. and what I found has completely 100% CURED my eczema - I have not had an outbreak in 20 years. it's gone. All skin problems like eczema come from having unhealthy skin. so, the skin is unhealthy, and that allows things like eczema, psoriasis etc. to get a foothold. The skin is not healthy enough to stop the problem. So, the number one thing to focus on is to have healthy skin. I was on cortisone type cream - did not help. I was told to moisturize 8 times a day, did not help. Finally, I found what would work. I hope this will help you. Our bodies make Gamma linolic acid (GLA) and this sort of 'seals' the skin surface. but if the body is not able to make enough GLA, then the skin is not protected, it is not healthy. there are 2 plants that make GLA - the borage plant, and the primrose - by taking borage oil or primrose oil - available at all the health food stores and some pharmacies - you GET the GLA without having to rely on your body making enough. It is a supplement, but really a food - it's just oil, so no side effects, no addictions etc. I have no idea why my body was not making enough, but as long as I take borage or primrose oil daily, I have literally been fine. It did take a few weeks though, to fully clear up for good. the oil is not cheap - the seeds from the plant are handpicked etc. Try taking vitamin E, as well, also known to be good for the skin. both these oils moisturize from the inside out. much better than slathering yourself with moisturizers. Definitely avoid anything you are allergic to - stay away from the caffeine, even if the oil works. Take extra Vitamin C - which is an immune booster, and helps reduce stress (stress often triggers skin conditions) Drink lots of plain water - stay hydrated Avoid harsh chemicals on the skin, INCLUDING soap, non-soap cleaners AND moisturizers. these all dry out (damage.) your skin at this point. stay away from them for now, at least. Moisturize with raw coconut oil - the polynesians have been using it for hundreds of years and have beautiful skin and hair. It is all natural, no additives, no chemicals. I have been using it for years, and it feels good on the skin. Apply very little, and if you put on too much, just blot it off. you could use other raw oils, such as extra virgin olive oil, but I have found that to be too heavy, clogs pours. there are probably others (shea butter?) I do not know, because I only use the coconut oil. For washing. skin has an acid mantle - everytime you use soap, you strip off the acid which again, makes your skin vulnerable. apple cider vinegar restores the acid mantle to skin and hair. so in a bathtub of water, you would add 2 cups of apple cider vinegar. to a sinkful of water, just to wash your face etc. add just 1/4 cup of apple cider vinegar - if you can find the raw apple cider vinegar, that is BEST - it is loaded with vitamins and minerals. and is a natural deodorizer. do not worry about the vinegar smell, it goes away when it dries. you wo not smell like french fries. :-) Do not use any other type of vinegar - again, apple cider vinegar is natural. If you use soap, be sure to rinse in the vinegar water. to restore the acid mantle. for example, you could take a shower, use soap (very little), and then fill a jug with warm water and splash of vinegar, and dump that over yourself. air dry if possible. or wait a bit and then pat dry. I hope this will help, but whatever you do, keep looking for ways to improve your skin health, and the eczema will go away.
What Is a Quartz Crystal Oscillator_ the Frequency of Quartz Crystal Oscillator Is Affected by the E
What Is a Quartz Crystal Oscillator_ the Frequency of Quartz Crystal Oscillator Is Affected by the E
Quartz crystal oscillator, also known as quartz resonator, is made of quartz crystal with piezoelectric effect. This kind of quartz crystal sheet will produce mechanical vibration under the action of external alternating electric field. When the frequency of alternating electric field is the same as the natural frequency of quartz crystal, the vibration becomes very strong, which is the response of crystal resonance characteristics. Using this characteristic, quartz resonator can be used to replace LC (coil and capacitor) resonant circuit, filter, etc. Because quartz resonator has the advantages of small volume, light weight, high reliability and high frequency stability, it is used in household appliances and communication equipment. Quartz resonators are mainly used as resonant elements in oscillation circuits requiring very stable frequency because of their high frequency stability.Piezoelectric effectIf an electric field is applied to the two electrodes of the quartz crystal, the wafer will be mechanically deformed. On the contrary, if mechanical force is applied on both sides of the wafer, an electric field will be generated in the corresponding direction of the wafer. This physical phenomenon is called piezoelectric effect.If alternating voltage is applied to the two poles of the wafer, the wafer will produce mechanical vibration, and the mechanical vibration of the wafer will produce alternating electric field. In general, the amplitude of the mechanical vibration of the wafer and the amplitude of the alternating electric field are very small, but when the frequency of the applied alternating voltage is a specific value, the amplitude increases significantly, which is much larger than the vibration at other frequencies. This phenomenon is called piezoelectric resonance, which is very similar to the resonance phenomenon of the LC circuit. Its resonant frequency is related to the cutting mode, geometry and size of the wafer.Composition of quartz crystal oscillatorThe basic composition of a quartz crystal oscillator is roughly as follows: cut a thin sheet (called a wafer, which can be square, rectangular or circular, etc.) from a quartz crystal according to a certain azimuth, apply a silver layer on its two corresponding surfaces as electrodes, weld a lead on each electrode to the pin, and then add the packaging shell to form a quartz crystal resonator, Quartz crystal or crystal, crystal oscillator; The crystal element with IC added into the package to form the oscillation circuit is called crystal oscillator. Its products are generally encapsulated in metal shell, but also in glass shell, ceramic or plastic.The frequency is affected by the external environmentThe frequency range of quartz crystal oscillator is very wide, and the frequency stability is in the range of 10-4 10-12. After calibration, the accuracy of 10-9 can be maintained within one year. The frequency accuracy of high-quality quartz crystal oscillator can reach 10-11 when it is often calibrated.The frequency of quartz crystal oscillator is not fixed, and many factors can affect it. For example, temperature can change it, so there will be the birth of "temperature compensated crystal oscillator".Temperature characteristic curve of frequencyTemperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) plays a role of temperature compensation by reducing the change of oscillation frequency caused by the change of ambient temperature through an additional temperature compensation circuit. The principle of temperature compensation crystal oscillator temperature compensation is to compensate the frequency drift of the resonator due to the change of ambient temperature by changing the load capacitance in the oscillation circuit.For example, the frequency accuracy of a quartz crystal oscillator is ± 20ppm, but it may be affected by voltage variation of ± 1ppm, welding temperature of ± 5ppm, mechanical vibration and impact of ± 3ppm, temperature range of ± 5-20ppm, etc. These are very common factors affecting the frequency accuracy of quartz crystal oscillator, which must be taken into account.The following are the parameters related to the effect of frequency affected by the external environmentFrequency accuracy: when the nominal power supply voltage, nominal load impedance, reference temperature (25 ℃) and other conditions remain unchanged, the maximum allowable deviation of the frequency of the crystal oscillator relative to its specified nominal value, i.e. (Fmax Fmin) / F0;Frequency temperature stability: the maximum allowable frequency deviation without implicit reference temperature or with implicit reference temperature operating within the specified temperature range under nominal power supply and load;Frequency aging: system drift process of output frequency with time caused by aging of components (mainly quartz resonators) under specified environmental conditions. It is usually measured by the frequency difference in a certain time interval. For highly stable crystal oscillators, the aging rate (relative frequency change per unit time) is often used to measure the approximately linear unidirectional drift of the output frequency in a long working time.Fine tuning capacitor circuit in quartz crystal oscillatorIn addition, the tuning capacitor in the quartz crystal oscillator is used to adjust its frequency.Frequency adjustment range: the range of output frequency is changed by adjusting a variable element of the crystal oscillator.FM (voltage control) characteristics: including FM frequency offset, FM sensitivity and FM linearity.① Frequency modulation frequency offset: the output frequency difference when the control voltage of the voltage controlled crystal oscillator changes from the nominal maximum value to the minimum value.② Frequency modulation sensitivity: the change of output frequency caused by the change of unit applied control voltage of voltage controlled crystal oscillator.③ FM linearity: it is a measure of the transmission characteristics of the modulation system compared with the ideal straight line (least square method).
The next Generation VMC Will Realize by Wire Flight Technology and Autonomous Flight
The next Generation VMC Will Realize by Wire Flight Technology and Autonomous Flight
Citing US media sources, UTC Aerospace Systems announced that it is developing the next generation UAV management computer (VMC), which has three core and multi-core processors, high-speed communication and open architecture, and can be used for key flight applications with high redundancy. With its advanced functions, for new and modified applications of civil and military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).Pictures from the InternetUTC aerospace systems' VMC extends the success of its existing flight control computers (FCC), thousands of which are currently used on military and commercial rotorcraft around the world. Compared with FCC, the next generation VMC will provide 20 times the computing power by combining three different multi-core processors. The advanced functions of the system will realize wire control, support autonomous and unmanned operation, and allow the system to host multiple applications, such as task management and utility management.UTC aerospace systems is developing the next generation VMC to meet or exceed regulatory requirements for safety critical applications and provide "certification readiness" for civil and military rotorcraft, fixed wing and UAV Systems. Its open system architecture is combined with modular hardware and software design to make it suitable for various applications. The system will be provided as a modification of existing aircraft and future platforms.UTC aerospace systems raised millions of dollars to design, develop and test the next generation VMC and develop the software needed to run the product. The company is expected to announce the launch of customers within one year and start delivery in 2022."Autonomous flight is our main focus area in UTC aerospace systems as we develop smarter aircraft technology," said Tim white, President of electrical environment and engine systems. "Commercial and military operators want to fly around the clock in a harsh visual environment, regardless of conditions. Autonomous and unmanned operation is an important part of meeting this challenge, and we are excited about how the next generation UAV management computer can help customers meet this demand.
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