Can a Bad Battery Cause Low Voltage "11.8" Even with a Good Alternator?

Alternator output would be even higher if the battery was bad because the alternator would try harder to charge the battery which is reading low. That's why a bad battery can fry an alternator. The bad battery puts the alternator into maximum output and there is no where for the extra power to go. It can also fry the ECU. Your alternator is not fine. If you had it tested and trust the people that tested it you then have wiring problems. I do not trust the sales people at auto stores to test alternators. I've had customers tell me their alternator tested good and it was not!.

1. Switch transistor with a low voltage and current

Yes; best case the hFe of a BJT will be 100 or so, which means your 0.017 mA will turn into 1.7 mA, which is not enough to power the relay coil.There's another problem, too: The current out of an Arduino will not be sufficient to drive the coil of a relay, as the typical spec is 25 mA per pin out, and typical relays use 35-100 mA of current for their coils.I question your assumption, though: What is the "0.2V" that you need for the switch? What do you think that means? Where does this number come from? Specifically, when the switch is open, the voltage gap across the switch will be pretty much VCC, as the switch resistance will be close to infinite. When the switch is closed, the voltage across the switch will be close to zero, as the switch will have close to zero resistance.There are various solutions to the core problem of "how to turn on a microcontroller with a button, and then keep it on until it's done." You might use a low-side N-channel MOSFET to switch on the relay coil. There would be a pull-down on the MOSFET gate, and the switch would pull it up to VCC. The digital out of the MCU would also be connected to this MOSFET gate, with a current limiting resistor that's lower than the pull-down, but high enough to not interfere with the switch when low. I would suggest 10 kOhm for the pull-down, and 1 kOhm for the digital pin resistor, and the switch goes straight from the MOSFET gate to VCC. Note that the MCU needs to be able to pull the MOSFET gate both high and low, so a diode would not work in that case.If you can be more specific about what the "0.2V" requirement actually means, and what it's actually coming from, that would be useful, too. Almost all voltage specifications have to do with insulation ratings, and 0.2V is not within the range of those. Other ratings come from arc gaps, and those are typically 16V or higher as well. Other than that, the main important factor for switches is the amount of current interrupted, and that's typically rated in at least dozens of milliamps.Thinking about it: Is the reason you need 0.2V differential "between switches" that you want to use an ADC to figure out which of many switches was used to start the MCU? If so, for 5V, a 0.2V differential is achieved with a ratio of resistors, rather than absolute values. A 24 Ohm resistor and 1 Ohm resistor will divide 5V into 4.8V and 0.2V, just like a 24 kOhm resistor and a 1 kOhm resistor will divide 5V into 4.8V and 0.2V, although with different amounts of current running through them!

2. What are low-voltage AC overhead systems for?

The "mains" voltage into our homes varies depending on 2 factors. One is practicality and the other is politics. It is, in large part, 100VAC (Japan), 120VAC (US) and 230VAC (UK). The politics is why there are these 3 common values, some scientist and some politician with an axe to grind and/or some investments in whatever voltage was used. Same deal with traffic lights and what the color sequences mean. In the US, it goes RED (stop), GREEN (go) and YELLOW (prepare to stop). In the UK it is RED (STOP), YELLOW (prepare to go) and GREEN (go).Inside the home, the most common voltage considered "low voltage" is 18VAC. This is used for HVAC, thermostats and doorbells. There is also 12VAC used by some halogen under cabinet and track lighting.In between houses anywhere from 1 to as many as 25 homes will share the same mains circuit supplied by a single pole mounted transformer that steps the usually 13,400VAC three phase power (WYE connected... odd, but there it is) down to mains voltage because every other three transformers or streets with transformers is connected to only one of the three phases at a time. One street gets phase A, the next may get phase B and the next phase C. They do this to balance the expected load of all streets. Places that use three phase, like fast food joints (McDonalds, Arby's, etc.), restaurants, laundromats, garages and many small businesses connect directly to the three phase lines themselves. What are low-voltage AC overhead systems for?What are low-voltage AC overhead systems not only for?

3. Is it possible to convert static electricity into low voltage current?

Use a spark gap and a stepdown transformer. Say for instance you have a Van De Graff generator as your source of static electricity. Create a spark gap close to the charge collector so that when the generator reaches, say, 50kV a spark jumps the gap and a current flows into the transformer. When the charge ionizes the air in the spark gap it becomes a relatively low resistance, you then get a pulse of current flowing through the gap and into the transformer which trickles to a lower value as the charge bleeds off, until the gap loses ionization and acts like an open switch. You will have a changing current going through a pulse transformer. The voltage required to ionize the gap will vary with things like humidity but you can enclose the gap in a glass blub. You will need a resistor to limit the current surge such as are used with spectral ionization lamps. And to limit emissive EMI noise. Take the output on the other side of the xformer, now low voltage, high cirrent, through a diode, or diodes, and store it on a cap. You now have useable DC. When you think about it, you have something like an ignition system in reverse. You could probably even use an ignition coil for the xformer to build your prototype. Just keep one hand in your pocket while working on it. lol

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Opamps Used in Low Voltage Applications
Opamps used in low voltage applicationsHow is it possible to use opamps on a supply of (3v), for example: mp3 player and other battery operated devices?A supply voltage of 3.3V is actually quite high for integrated circuits. Voltages on the order of 1.2V to 3.3V are quite common. what type of opamps do we use in low voltage applications?The input stage is often standard, since the common-mode voltage can be set to a fixed level.The final stage of such an opamp looks like an inverter (push-pull stage). The tricky part is controlling the quiescent current. Such output stages are called rail-to-rail.how is it possible they have such a big output voltages in relation to the ?supply voltage?Outputs are differential. We do not have one output fixed at 0V and the other moving, but both outputs moving up and down. So the amplitude can be almost equal to the supply voltage. This gives four times the output power compared to a single-ended output.If that's not enough a boost converter is required. For a given load impedance and output power a certain voltage is needed. There is no way around that.For audio (MP3 players, if they still exist) the output signal is usually generated using a class-D amplifier. Here the output is switched on and off to generate a PWM signal, which results in a higher efficiency.— — — — — —What is a separated extra low voltage system (SELV)? What is it used for?ELV SolutionStructured Cabling and Cabinet Solution: Alpha Data provides versatile solutions for various needs including, copper solutions, fiber solutions, intelligent cabling solutions and rack solution for DC and Campus.AV Services - Alpha Data can also effectively address all audio-visual needs including Projection & Screen Equipment, PA Systems, Paging Systems, Digital Signage, Interactive Television. Kiosk Info Desks and Meeting and Auditorium SystemPhysical Security Solutions: Alpha Data has proven itself by providing IP CCTV Systems for reputable companies such as Pelco, Honeywell, Howen, Watchnet, Infinova, and Axxonsoft; Video Surveillance Storage to companies such as Rasiliant and Infortrend; Access Control Systems to companies such as Gallagher ( Cardax), Honeywell, RBH; Time & Attendance System to Wipaq ( ZK Tech) , Miditec; Master Clock System to Bodet , Mobotime; Audio - Video Intercom System to Comelit , BPT, Jacques, Commend; Guest Room Management System to Honeywell (INNCOM); Gate Barrier & speed Gate to FAAC, DEA, Boon Edam and Digital Mobile Radio and Broad Band solution. Data Centre build Services: Organizations are centralizing their IT operations by cultivating central data centers. Alpha Data aims to help in this regard by utilizing its wide range of specializations to offer the following services: virtualization, to improve the efficiency of existing resources in a cost-effective manner; data migration, which includes applications servers and physical shifting of equipment while addressing core elements; Cooling systems to ensure ideal temperatures within the center; Raised flooring to accommodate the massive amounts of cable; uninterrupted water supply, to maintain operations; fire suppression systems that are environmentally friendly and non-toxic; and water detection, through the installation of water sensitive cables designed to address any leaks effectively.What is a separated extra low voltage system (SELV)? What is it used for?.— — — — — —Charging a low-voltage high-C capacitor. EfficientlyPutting the 2.2V zener in parallel with the capacitor does not cut into the charging efficiency at all — the zener does not conduct at all until the capacitor is fully charged. But once it does conduct, it needs to absorb all of the energy coming from the dynamo, so make sure it's suitably rated— — — — — —What's causing my truck to run low voltage?If it runs at 10 volts you still have a charging system issue. Does the large wire on the alternator have battery voltage to it at all times?— — — — — —Low Voltage C-Wire at ThermostatAny modern furnace will have enough capacity on the C wire to support a "smart" thermostat as well as powering the control board and the compressor contactor, so I would simply take the coiled-up blue wire ends at the splice, nut them together, install your new thermostat, and enjoy!— — — — — —Class 1 low voltage wiring in wallSimply use 14 gauge NM -- you can use any chapter 3 wiring method you wish for a class 1 control circuit. (If you were in conduit, there is a fill advantage to using thinner wire for control circuits, but that's not really a thing when you are using cable wiring methods.)
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