Are Polish Surnames Patronymic, Like in Czech Slovak Or Lithuanian Surnames?

Czech and Slovak surnames are usually not patronymic. Of course they exist (Palkovi, Adamovi, tefanovi, etc), but it is a specific category, not a general pattern or a widespread type of surnames.Similarly, there are Polish patronymic surnnames (Adamczyk, ukaszewicz , etc), but it is not a general pattern.

1. Is the Serbian language to Croatian what Slovak is to Czech?

No. Slovak and Czech are two separate but close languages. Serbian and Croatian are the same language. It's like British and American English

2. What are the exact relations between Slovak and Slovene?

There are some similarities between Slovenian and Slovak, but even more similarities between some so-called Kajkavian dialects in northern Croatia (which are overall similar to Slovenian) and Central Slovak dialects (which are the basis of Standard Slovak).It's first -me in 1st pers. pl, Kajkavian imame "we have".There are overall similarities between Slovak and South Slavic dialects (including Slovene, of course). One similarity is -m in 1st pers. sg. of most verbs, just compare forms of "I bake":Next, there are overall similarities between Southern Slavic and Czech/Slovak. Compare:Here the difference between Slovak and South Slavic languages is just in spelling: Slovak is spelled as lj in the South, and southern spellings do not show that a is long (it is), while the Slovak spelling shows it.There are more similarities, in phonetic development, etc

3. Why do some Slovak citizens not understand Slovak and speak Hungarian?

Oh, there is a whole wikipedia waiting for you about the history of the past say millennium

4. How different are the Czech and Slovak languages?

The languages are very similar and just two centuries ago, it was possible to declare that Slovak was just a continuum of dialects of Czech. People understand each other most of the time. The percentage of words that are truly confusing or unknown to the other nation is some 5% in each language. In some additional 10% of cases, the languages pick primary words that are different from the other language but comprehensible.Czech sounds "harder", Slovak is "softer" (closer to the Eastern Slavic languages), when it comes to the pronunciation of syllables like de-te-ne etc.I think that pater noster, the Lord's prayer, is a fun comparison. English: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.Czech: Ote n, jen jsi na nebesch, posv se jmno tv, pij krlovstv tv, bu vle tv jako v nebi, tak i na zemi. Slovak: Ote n, ktor si na nebesiach, posv sa meno tvoje, pr krovstvo tvoje, bu va tvoja ako v nebi, tak i na zemi.Look at the differences: Slovak has "ktor" (which, that) instead of "jen" in Czech. But Czech also mostly uses "kter" which is a synonym of "jen" - a more frequent one today, in fact. "Jen" in the Czech prayer is a bit archaic. "Ktor" and "kter" will obviously be understood even by kids from both nations who have never heard the other language. Slovaks do not understand "jen" when they see it for the first time but from the context, they may really "train themselves" to understand that the word means "ktor". "Na nebesch" vs "na nebesiach" (in heaven). Instead of the long "" in Czech, Slovak has "ia". The endings used for declension are a bit different. The precise letters chosen in the endings are different in some 50% of (grammatical) cases but the differences seem small enough to understand. The endings are just some modifications of the noun (the precise form is "secondary") and they get repeated all the time - when a Slovak listens to a minute of a Czech talk, he learns that these different endings probably mean the same thing as his endings.Now, "posv" (hallow) vs "posv". They sound almost identical. A relatively big difference is that Slovak has "" while Czech does not have the letter (and sound) at all - it actually looks Western European to us. As far as Czechs may say, "" is pronounced almost just like "e" and the difference is mainly to emphasize that the word is derived from "svat" which is "saint" or "holy" etc. On the other hand, Slovak does not have the Czech "" which is either "je" phonetically, or which softens the consonant in previous "d-t-n". In Slovak, "de-te-ne" is pronounced softly even without the sign on top of "". "Jmno" (name) in Czech is "meno" in Slovak. The initial "j" in Czech is not really pronounced at all (it should not be, we were taught, but someone tries to sound "right" so he pronounces it, anyway) so it is just a historical weirdness of the Czech spelling and the long "" is a relatively small difference."Tvoje" (your, yours) vs "tv". No real difference whatever - Czech could say "tvoje", too. "Tv" is a shorter Czech synonym, perhaps unavoidable in archaic texts. Slovaks do not use "tv", ever, but they will quickly understand that we do."Pij" (come) in Czech is "pr" in Slovak. Well, our Czech sound "" does not exist in Slovak at all. Only the Czechs and Poles have a similar sound although the Polish "rz" sounds a bit different and "harsher" than the Czech "". But Slovaks just say "r" instead and it's OK. The Czech "ij" is basically indistinguishable by hearing from the long Slovak "", so it's just a bit different spelling of the same thing, not far from the British and American "colour" vs "color"."Krlovstv" (kingdom) in Czech is "krovstvo" in Slovak. In both cases, it's constructed from "krl", the king, much like in English. The endings, - and -o, are different, even in nominative case in this example, but speakers in both nations sort of recognize that it sounds like a neuter gender noun. Czech language has -o for other neuter gender words, such as msto (town). Slovaks learn quickly - they decode that krlovstv is the kingdom the first moment when they hear it. Also, Slovak has a soft "" in the word. Czech only uses the hard ordinary "l" and nothing else. Czech has the simplest collection of similar consonants (with the exception of "") among these Slavic nations - the Poles also have several versions of "L", including the slashed one which is close to "w"."Vle" vs "voa" (will, a noun). Again, soft-vs-hard "L". On top of that, Czech has this long "" with the circle above "U" - not present in Slovak - which sounds exactly the same as "" but is used for purely Czech words in the middle - words that once had "uo" instead of "". On the other hand, the Slovak language evolved just towards some minor variation of "UO" as a replacement of the old "uo", and this "o-with-a-hat" is basically their way of writing "uo" as a single letter now. Similar enough to understand. An "u" decorated by an "o" is not too different from a prolonged "u". One still knows that "something is done with the u sound". Also, there is a different vowel at the end - exactly the difference discussed in the next paragraph."Tv" vs "tvoja" (your, feminime) is analogous to "tv" vs "tvoje" above - in feminime edition. The only difference is that the alternative Czech synonym is "tvoje", not "tvoja". But close enough to understand, especially because the ending -a for the feminime gender is used in many other situations in Czech. -a is the most typical feminime ending in our languages - it just happens that -e is used for many feminime words in Czech, too. Slovaks must notice this unusual overrepresentation of the feminime -e words but they must get used to them quickly. "Jako" (as, like) in Czech is "ako" in Slovak. Slovak eliminates "j" at the beginning of this word and a few similar words. Great. Not a problem if you just try to understand. "V nebi, tak i na zemi" (in heaven and equally on Earth) at the end of my quote is identical in Czech and Slovak. You can actually construct lots of sentences like that which are completely identical in both languages. As you could see, the spelling is often different but it's because our languages insist on the (nearly) phonetic spelling - our spellings are close to the "international phonetic" one. In American vs British English, some of these differences are invisible in the written form but still exist in the pronounced form - like "tomato" vs "tomeyto". So the pronounced differences between Czech and Slovak are not too different from the British vs American English differences. They are just copied to the written form because we write more phonetically which makes it impossible to hide the differences in pronunciation while writing a text - and in some cases, Czech and Slovak picked a different spelling even thought the pronunciation is the same or almost the same. It could have been deliberate at the beginning - the founder of the Slovak language needed to emphasize that it's a different language. Also, from that moment on, the reforms of spelling in both languages were mostly independent from one another.There exists a list of some 50 important enough Slovak words, usually nounsSlovensk slova, kterm mlad ei nerozumthat are often misunderstood by Czechs. For example, "maka" in Slovak is "koka" in Czech, a cat, but Czechs only use "maka" for crampons, climbing irons. Interestingly, both languages use "koka" for a pretty woman. But even if these words really created some trouble, you see that the task of becoming compatible with the other language is trivial: You just train yourself in some 50 critical words. And maybe only 10 of them could be needed in 90% of the situations you will actually experience.The situations are almost symmetric. Here are the 20 most widely misunderstood Czech words by Slovaks:20 eskch slov, kterm Slovci nejastji nerozumCzech "Miluji" i.e. "I love you" is "bim" in Slovak, "velbloud" in Czech, a camel, is "ava" in Slovak. Twenty words like that - which really do not resemble anything in the other language (or, in some cases, resemble something completely wrong) - may be memorized and a Czech or Slovak may be ready to become a professional translator from the other language. ;-) And you do not really need 1/2 of them or so because there are not too many camels in Czechia and Slovakia etc. So the differences are nonzero and it's hard enough to learn the other language *actively* with no mistakes but to learn it *passively* is very easy. The ease of the passive learning is the reason why many Slovaks tend to keep their language in Czechia and vice versa. You will be almost equally understood if you speak your native language - and you will avoid speaking a broken Czech or Slovak, too

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What Are the Advantages of LED Light Source DLP Splicing Products
As a new large screen video technology, LED light source DLP splicing products have always been one of the key industrial innovations concerned by the industry. The adoption of sub era light source LED technology is not only a simple change in light source technology, but also will fundamentally change the practical performance of DLP splicing products, and even create many new application modes. So, what unexpected new surprises will the new LED light source DLP splicing bring to industry customers?Lower system cost of ownershipThe first significant change in the application of LED light source to DLP splicing wall products is that the cost of users is significantly reduced. Although the use of LED technology will increase the first investment of DLP splicing wall project by 30%, the service life of LED light source reaches 60000 hours, which is about 20 times that of traditional mercury lamp. 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The solid-state emission of LED light source significantly increases the stability of the light source itself.Different from traditional mercury lamp products, LED light source is driven by low-voltage DC pulse. The power supply part does not contain high voltage and high current components, so the service life and stability of the power supply are more controllable. Combined with the natural luminescence of the three primary colors of the LED light source, there is no need for mechanical color wheel components for light splitting, which makes the LED light source more stable than the traditional mercury lamp in terms of power supply, control and light splitting.The three primary colors of LED light source work independently, which also makes the whole machine can still display the picture in the lack of color even if a "bulb" fails. This is in sharp contrast to the situation that the traditional single lamp DLP splicing unit cannot work once the bulb is burned out. It can display without color, so that once the light source appears unexpectedly, the LED light source can minimize the loss of customers to the greatest extent, or even no loss. Compared with the simple single lamp DLP splicing unit, the reliability of LED light source products is closer to the dual lamp backup system.Green environmental protection and low carbonLED light source technology is a famous green environmental protection technology. The characteristics of its semiconductor process make it easier to control toxic metals. Unlike the traditional mercury lamp, once damaged, it is likely to cause the leakage of toxic elements in the internal mercury lamp. As a semiconductor element, LED light source can also be recycled, and important metal elements can be recycled in the smelting process again.In addition, LED light source products are also light source products with high luminous efficiency.Under the same brightness conditions, it has lower energy consumption. Moreover, the LED light source emits light in digital pulse mode with independent three primary colors. The LED light source works only when the DLP light valve chip DMD needs light of a certain color. This is quite different from the continuous ignition mode of the traditional mercury lamp. LED light source does not work continuously. It only makes valuable luminescence when needed, which also makes it better meet the needs of low-carbon and environmental protection for future economic development.Bright colors make the picture more gorgeous
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